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Louis Riel and Northwest Rebellions (plus review)

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Kathleen Asher

on 30 April 2012

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Transcript of Louis Riel and Northwest Rebellions (plus review)

By the end of today I can...
self-assess my knowledge of the Northwest (NW) up to 1870;

Explore
the Metis List of Rights (p 159)
Northwest Mounted Police
the changes leading to the NW Rebellions of 1885;
time pending: CURRENT ISSUE limbic system:
controls emotions and motivations Hippocampus Amygdala brains security guard
protects us from threats
blocks higher level thinking
body is prepared for automatic response: fight, flight, or freeze assists in managing our response to fear and threats;
stores memories and learning; prefrontal cortex highly evolved
learn to read, write, compute, analyze, predict, comprehend, and interpret -put brain science into practice;
-practice self-assessment and test-taking strategies...
-practice communicating ideas with partners... yea! Effective use of text and supporting materials predict... 1) Timeline (page 129) and mapping package (questions)
2) Figure 4-2 & 4-3: where did the two companies overlap in territory? Where did they ship the furs from?
3) Figure 4-8: What do we know of the Beaver supplies? What can we infer about the Fur trade?
4) Figure 4-13: Notice where the Selkirk Grant is in comparison to figure 4-2 & 4-3 1800-1810 (p.139-142)
-growing competition b/w NWC and HBC
-promised more valuable trade goods

-Metis culture developed:
mix between European and Native heritage
-NWC traders wintered in their trading areas
company policy believed marrying into native communities = loyalty
note- HBC had strict policy of celibacy Have mapping package out: Video: A People's History: Episode 6:
After the merger:
George Simpson: 'The Little Emperor'
1.23 to 1.29 TICKET IN FOUNDING OF SELKIRK SETTLEMENT (1812):

Thomas Douglas/ Lord Selkirk:
Head of HBC in 1811

Selkirk Grant of 1811:
-300,000 square kms of land;
-he brought over poor tenant farmers in his native Scotland;
-farmers would grow food, and supply HBC employees
-in what is now southern Manitoba/North Dakota

Pemmican Proclamation:
effectively banned the sale and export of pemmican from the Red River;
so that the colonists would have food;
infuriated Metis

Cuthbert Grant: Metis Leader from 1816, retaliated against HBC boats on the Assiniboine River (Seven Oaks)

Selkirk Treaty of 1817: Selkirk made treaty with the local Ojibwa and Cree nations for tract of land along Red River Valley.

HBC and NWC merged in 1821: now HBC was a monopoly:
George Simpson, experience with trading sugar (but not furs)
made new Governor of HBC
nick named 'Little Emperor How can text features help me
with my learning?
Conclusion
Timeline Red River Settlement: 1821- 1860
By 1860: more than 80% of the population was of mixed descent;
Scottish settlers grew crops and sold to HBC
Metis
farmed
bison hunt:
supplied pemmican / Buffalo robes to HBC;
HBC monopoly over fur trade;
Metis started fighting for right to trade in furs in 1840 and in 1849 broke the HBC monopoly over furs; 1860s- more settlers because of population increase in Canada West;

Orange Order:
many new protestant settlers: violently anti-French, and anti-Catholic;
NorWester paper formed- owner championed 'Canadian' interests
Canadian Party - (anti-Metis... under human rights legislation- would be regarded as promoting hatred) 1869 CONTROL OF RUPERT'S LAND TRANSFERRED TO CANADIAN GOVERNMENT:
-HBC governed the land didn't want the administrative duties;
They sold Rupert's Land to Dominion of Canada;

NorthWestern Territory joined Rupert's Land to become North-west Territories;
Dominion of Canada surveyors had arrived
Surveyors did not recognize the ownership by the Metis;after surveyors came land speculators; rising tensions from crop failures, bison disappearing,
Metis believed if a person cleared land and farmed it, they would have a right to it; Bison Hunt
-cultural and seasonal event
-whole community involved
-pemmican: made from dried meat and fat;
-sold pemmican to traders Video: A People's History: Episode 6:
After the merger: The Selkirk Settlers to The Little Emperor:
1.23 to 1.29 Video: Episode 9: 'If we are rebels: 15 minutes to 22 minutes) Video: Episode 9: 'War is Upon Us':
22 minutes to 35 minutes' RED RIVER REBELLION
-Metis National Committee: - formed by Louis Riel to fight for Metis concerns about their land;

-confronted new governor of the North-West Territories; ('go back to Ottawa')

-Metis wanted to ensure their rights and traditions:

-set up a provisional government (temporary)

-feared Governor McDougall would give all the power to the Canadian Party (who were armed), and ignore the Metis;
METIS LIST OF RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS
-Drew up a list of rights
-travelled to negotiate with Prime Minister John A. Macdonald;

-drafted proposal to create province of Manitoba;

1870 EXECUTION OF THOMAS SCOTT
-belligerent member of the Canadian Party
-executed by firing squad by provisional gov't

-MacDonald finally heard Metis' case in April,
- agreed to the terms for Manitoba's admission to Confederation.

-Riel fled to U.S. for 15 years. Shifting Gears (Figures 3-26):
http://www.pc.gc.ca/media/nature_e.asp?video=38

pages 112- 114 - 5 important points - 3 - 1

page 1
page 2
page 3

Current Issue: Elephants REVIEW Have mapping package out:
-What's Important and Why? Ticket Out! yea! When you're done your quiz...

Read (or reread) the Metis List of Rights from page 159.

a) choose a right that you understand and consider why it's important.
b) write out any connections or questions that arise from reading these rights.

See figure 4-27:

Video: Episode 10: from 55min to 138min

Homework: Wh.I.&.W?intro page170 & NWMP - pages 177/178
Full transcript