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The features of the Ocean floor

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Yasmeen Hill

on 4 November 2013

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Transcript of The features of the Ocean floor

whats in the Continental Margins
In the Atlantic ocean an area thick layers of undisturbed sediment that covers the continental margin. The continental margins has very little volcanic or earthquake activity.

In the Pacific the oceanic crust plunges underneath the continental crust.The force is a result of a narrow continental experiences both volcanic and earthquakes.
Ocean Basin Floor
the middle of the mid-ocean ridge and the continental margin is where the ocean basin floor lies.
This region is about 30% of the Earth's surface its also comparable to the percentage of land above sea level.
Mid-Ocean Ridge
Mid-Ocean Ridge: found near the center of most ocean basins.

it has an interconnected system of underwater mountains that have made a new ocean crust.This system is the longest topographic feature on earths surface.It exceeds 70,000 kilometers in length, an has the width up to 1,000-4,000kilometers and could take up half or all of the ocean floor.
The features of Ocean floor
Ocean Floor
the ocean floor is divided into 3 major regions. the 3 regions are: the continental margins,ocean basin floor, and the mid-ocean ridge.
Continental Shelf
the continental shelf : is a gently sloping submerged surface extending from the shoreline.
the continental shelf is almost nonexistent along some coastlines but the shelf might extend to the seaward as far as 1500 kilometers along other coastlines. the shelf is a average of 80 kilometers wide and 130 meters deepat the seaward edge the steepness is 2meters deep per kilometer.
Deep-ocean Trenches
Deep-Ocean Trenches: long narrow creases on the ocean floor that produce the deepest parts of the ocean.

The trenches from at the sites of plate convergence, where one plate goes underneath one another and plunges back into the mantle. Most of the trenches are located along the margins of the Pacific Ocean, many get as much as 10,000 meters in depth.
Abyssal Plains: deep,extremely flat features.

The abyssal plains are the most levelest places on Earth.They have thick accumulations of fine sediments that has buried the rugged ocean floor.Sediment that make up the abyssal plains are carried by the turbidity currents or deposited as a result of suspended sediments settling.Abyssal plains can be found in all oceans of the world.The Atlantic Ocean has the most extensive abyssal plains because it has very few trenches to catch the sediment from the continental slope.
continental margin
the scientific definition of the continental margin is:portion of the seafloor adjacent to the continents; it may include the continental shelf, continental slope, and continental rise

my definition is: parts of the seafloor that are the same to the continents in it has the continental slope, continental rise, and the continental shelf
ocean basin floor
the ocean basin floor: an area of the deep-ocean floor between the continental margin and the oceanic ridge.

my definition for the ocean basin floor: in the deep-ocean floor in the middle of the continental margin and the oceanic ridge.
Mid-ocean ridge
mid-ocean ridge:a continuous elevated zone on the floor of all the major ocean basins and varying in width from 1000-4000 kilometers;The rifts at the crests of ridges represent divergent plate boundaries.
Continental Slope
The continental slope:marking the seaward edge of the continental shelf.
The slope is steeper than the shelf, and it marks the boundaries between the oceanic crust and continental crust. The slope also varies anywhere from 5 degrees to anywhere that exceeds 25 degrees. It has a narrow feature that is 20 kilometers in width. Submarine canyons are cut into the slope. The turbidity currents on occasion move sediment rich water down the continental slope.
Continental Rise
Continental rise: regions where trenches do not exist the steep continental moves into a more gradual incline.
The continental rise may hundreds of kilometers wide. The steepness at this point from the slope decreases about 6 meters per kilometer.
Seamounts
Seamounts: submerged volcanic peaks that dot the ocean floor.

Seamounts are volcanoes that haven't reached the ocean surface.The steep-sided cone-shaped peaks that are found on the oceans floors.The most seamounts have been found in the Pacific Ocean.Some seamounts form volcanic hot spots.
Guyots
Guyots: Once-active but now submerged flat-topped structures.

Once underwater volcanoes reach the surface, they form islands.Over time the island get eroded by running water and the wave action that help erode the volcanic islands to sea level.After that the islands sink back into the ocean gradually and might disappear below the water.This process happens by a moving plate that moves it from the high oceanic ridge or hotspot.
Abyssal Plains
Seafloor Spreading
Seafloor Spreading: happens when a divergent plate boundaries where two lithospheric plates move apart.

A high amount of volcanic activity takes place along the crest of the mid-ocean ridge and this activity makes seafloor spreading happen.Seafloor spreading makes more of the ocean floor when magma comes out of the divergent plates and cools.
Hydrothermal Vents
Hydrothermal vents: form along the mid-ocean ridges.

These zones have mineral rich water that is heated by hot new formed oceanic crust, that escapes through the cracks of the oceanic crust into surrounding water.When the mineral rich water hit cold water,minerals and metals they precipitate out and are deposited.
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