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Energy Systems

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Geraint Davies

on 10 November 2014

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Transcript of Energy Systems

WJEC AS Physical Education Energy Systems
Energy Systems and Sporting Performance
An Overview
ATP = The body's only source of fuel
Rotating Trio
Working in a group of 3.....
Key features of each system - have a go on your own = independently...
The Human Body = ??
Adenosine Tri Phosphate = ??
Creatine Phosphate = ??
Oxygen = ??
What are the features of these cars?
When ATP is used to produce energy it must be replenished
This can be done either.....
aerobically or
Use your information to prepare a short presentation which you will each present to a different group
Consider what questions you are going to ask to develop understanding
what would the examiner want to know?
Fitness Levels
Now try to apply these terms to what you have already...
No set way to answer.... interpret it and give it a go. WORK TOGETHER = Collaboratively
On your white board record details of what you can remember from last lesson....
Adenosine Triphosphate
Compounds are broken down by enzymes.
Energy is released from ATP by breaking the bonds that hold the molecules together
This type of reaction is an
reaction, because energy is released.
ATP-PC System
ATP can be
regenerated rapidly
using the ATP–PC system.
Phosphocreatine stores can be regenerated quickly
(30 s = 50% replenishment and 4 min = 104%).
There is only a
limited supply of phosphocreatine
in the muscle cells, i.e. it can only last for 10 s.
one molecule of ATP
can be regenerated
for every molecule of PC
Advantages of the ATP-PC System
Disadvantages of the ATP-PC System
Use the images and add as much detail as you can think of....
Names of molecules
Duration? Intensity? Fitness Levels?
Bi products produced
The enzyme that breaks down ATP into ADP + Pi is
Pi represents a free phosphate molecule.
A reaction that requires energy to work is called an
ADP + Pi
is an
TASK 2a & 2b
Anaerobic Glycolysis
ATP can be regenerated
quite quickly
because few chemical reactions are required.
Lactic acid is the
. The accumulation of lactic acid in the body
denatures enzymes
and prevents them increasing the rate at which chemical reactions take place.
Disadvantages of Anaerobic Glycolysis
Advantages of the lactic acid system
In the presence of
lactic acid
can be
back into
liver glycogen or used as a fuel
through oxidation into carbon dioxide and water.
The process comes into use for an extra burst of energy, for example to produce a
sprint finish
Aerobic Glycolysis
Comprehension Task
Work with a partner
Read the information,
highlight, underline
and make notes as you go
Use the information to complete the
TASK 2a and 2b.
More ATP can be produced than by anaerobic systems —
38 ATP molecules
from the complete breakdown of each glucose molecule.
what happens to the bonds?
The tasks are designed to be challenging so
work together!
Round 2!
Only a
small amount of energy
can be released from glycogen under anaerobic conditions (5% compared with 95% under aerobic conditions).

Round 3
Disadvantages of the Aerobic System
Advantages of the Aerobic System
Glycogen and triglyceride
stores are large
, so exercise can last for a long time.
There are
no fatiguing by-products
(only carbon dioxide and water).
This is a complicated system, so it
cannot be used straightaway.
It takes a while for
enough oxygen
to become available to
meet the demands
of the activity and ensure
glycogen and fatty acids
are completely broken down.
Fatty acid transportation to muscles is low and fatty acids require
15% more oxygen
to break them down than glycogen.
There are no
fatiguing by-products
It is possible to extend the time the ATP–PC system can be utilised through use of
creatine supplementation
PC regeneration can only take place in the
presence of oxygen
(i.e. when the intensity of the exercise is reduced).
Share your homework
Each energy system is suited to a particular type of exercise, depending on the intensity and duration and whether oxygen is present.
Name and describe each energy system, providing an example for where each is required in a sporting activity of your choice relating to intensity and duration
The ATP-PC system is required when working at a very high intensity (95-100% VO2 max) and short duration (less than 10 seconds). The absence of oxygen and the limited store of ATP and PCr in the muscles means that this is the predominant energy source in spring activities such as 100m in athletics.
An Example response.....
By, Wes Jenson-Elgan Cummings
Anaerobic glycolysis is required for high intensity exercise (80-90% VO2max) such as running from ruck to ruck during 10 phases of play in rugby where the duration may be up to 3 minutes. Lactic acid is produced in the absence of sufficient oxygen meaning that fatigue will prevent the player from continuing for any longer at that intensity.
The aerobic system relies on glycogen for resynthesising ATP in the presence of oxygen and therefore does not produce lactic acid or indeed fatigue. Used in low intensity activity such as jogging or walking to a lineout (50-60% VO2 max) and can produce energy over prolonged periods lasting up to 2 hours.
Past Exam Question
1 Explain the role of ATP in the body [2]
ATP is the only form of usable energy (1)

It breaks down into ADP + P/ATP ➞ ADP + P + energy (1)
The Energy Continuum
TASK 1: Using the example below, identify and describe the relevant theory....
Inductive Learning
When we start any exercise, the demand for energy rises rapidly. Although all three energy systems are always working at the same time, one of them will be the predominant energy provider. The intensity and duration of the activity are the factors that decide which will be the main energy system in use.
An Example of the Kind of Theory....
Jogging is a long-duration, submaximal activity, so the aerobic system will be the predominant energy system. An explosive, short-duration activity such as the 100 metres will use the ATP–PC system. In a game of hockey there will be a mix of all three energy systems and the player will move from one energy system to the other as the predominant source of energy.
The ATP–PC/lactic acid threshold is the point at which the ATP–PC energy system is exhausted and the lactic acid system takes over. The lactic acid/aerobic threshold is the point at which the lactic acid system is exhausted and the aerobic system takes over. These are indicated on the graph below.
TASK 2: examples of sports...
TASK 3: Use the graph to explain what happens at point a. and b.
Memory Tester
Individually go to the back desk
You have 30 seconds to read AND remember as much as possible
Record what you can remember on your white board
Work together as a team....
What is OBLA?
When does it occur in trained and untrained athletes?
What does the point it occurs at depend upon?
At what level of lactic acid does it occur?
What is buffering
Wrap Up Task
use your learning so far to complete TASK 4
Then examples tasks
Homework for Next Lesson
1. All handouts should be up to date

Focus is on the bringing together your learning from the course so far
How to put together the training programme
Methods and Principles of Training
Use your A3 Sheet to add links between energy systems, methods and principles of training
Not very good examples!!

Have to use a specific situation
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