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The Periodic Table!
Transcript of The Periodic Table!
These are the group numbers.
5.14 Hydrogen Family - a family by itself
gas at room temperature
property of non-metals
colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic, gas as low as -253 degrees C, but can solidify at -259 degrees C. (Weird, huh?)
reacts like group 1 ( 1 valence electron)
reacts like group 17 or 7A (needs only 1 electron to complete its outer shell)
Found in trace amounts in the earth's atmosphere
Space program uses hydrogen the most for fuel purposes
Group 1 -- Alkali Metals Family
Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr
Very reactive! (They have one valence electron and only need to get rid of one to have a full octet on the level below.)
Usually have a +1 charge when the atom loses its extra electron
Na (sodium) is the most abundant. It must be stored in oil so it will not react with water. This also the most abundant alkali metal.
Soft at room temperature
Group 2 - Alkaline-earth metals
Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra
All solid at room temperature and have typical metal properties
+2 charge when lose its 2 valence electrons
also very reactive
They are denser, harder, and have higher melting points than the alkali metals.
Be is in emeralds
Ca is the 5th most abundant substance in the earth's crust
silvery to white in appearance
slightly higher densities than alkali metals
The elements at the bottom are the most reactive because the electrons are the most loosely held
Donate 2 electrons when they combine with non-metals
They have many uses. Be is used in x-ray tubes. Mg is used to make light weight alloys. Ca is used in the form of limestone for building materials. Ba is used in fireworks.
The Transition Metals
Most commonly used metals, such as copper and iron
precious metals like silver, gold, platinum
typical metal properties
all EXCEPT mercury (Hg) are solids at room temperature
some like gold, silver, platinum resist corrosion
others corrode quickly when exposed to moist air like iron and copper
There are MANY uses
Metals used in car frames, building materials, electrical wires...
Inner Transition Metals
Lanthanide and Actinide Series
These are paramagnetic (weakly attracted by a magnetic field)
Lanthanide Series (Elements 57-71)
once called rare-earth because they were once difficult to identify and purify
Actinide Series (Elements 89-103)
the first 5 found in nature
others formed in nuclear reactions
have many radioactive, unstable isotopes
Lanthanide - glass, catalysts in chemical reactions
Actinide - nuclear reactions, atomic bombs, fuel
Post Transition Metals
Contain Al, Sn, Pb, Tl, In, Ga
Semiconductors - conduct electricity under certain conditions
Their characteristics lie between metals and nonmetals.
have a partly metallic luster, but more colors than usual gray
more brittle and crystalline
Contains B, As, Si, Sb, Ge, Te, At
Group 13 - Boron Family
Boron and Aluminum are the most important economically.
Aluminum is the most common metal in the earth's crust and is found in clays.
Group 14 - Carbon Family
Carbon compounds are the basis for life
solids at room temperature
4 valence electrons but many possible oxidation states
Silicon and germanium are vital to the microprocessor industry
Group 15 - Nitrogen family
78% of the earth's atmosphere is nitrogen
White phosphorus is phosphorescent and is the original source for this name
extremely reactive and will burn spontaneously in atmospheric oxygen
poisonous in small amounts
Nitrogen's largest use is in producing ammonia
Group 16 - The Oxygen family
Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas.
21% of earth's atmosphere
one of the most chemically active elements
second largest electronegativity (Only fluorine beats it!)
dissolves in water
forms oxides with other elements
Sulfur forms sulfides with Zn, Ca, and Fe
used to treat dandruff, acne, eczema
used in photovoltaic cells, semiconductors
Polonium used for its radioactivity
Group 17 - Halogens
Most chemically uniform group other than the noble gases
7 valence electron makes them very reactive and very electronegative
One more electron gives them the complete octet.
Fluorine is the MOST electronegative.
Form salts when the react with reactive metals ( NaCl, KBr...)
Used in non-stick cookware, fluoride toothpaste. Chlorine is used in swimming pools to kill algae. A lack of iodine stunts growth.
Group 18 - The Noble Gases
Do not normally react with other elements because they have a complete octet
8 valence electrons
Colorless, odorless, tasteless gases
extremely low boiling points and freezing points
Helium is used in balloons
Seen in"neon" light signs
Watch as least 2 minutes of this.
Go here to learn the elements and symbols for the studystack matching quiz that includes elements beyond Krypton (#36).
Periodic Trends lecture
Helpful for memorizing, but still optional
Use this "made-up" song we sing in class to help you learn the first 36 elements in order for the blank periodic table quizzes.
Learn this song for 10 bonus points on a quiz.
Periodic Table Explained a little