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Atlantic Revolutions

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Ashley Leyba

on 4 February 2016

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Transcript of Atlantic Revolutions

Chapter 16: Atlantic Revolutions
CCOT Essay (
AP essay!)
Chapter 17: Revolutions of Industrialization
Primary Source Activity: Factory Life
Chapter 18: Colonial Encounters in Asia and Africa
Chapter 19: China, the Ottoman Empire, and Japan

Unit 5 Test:
Thursday, March 3 (multiple choice)
Friday, March 4 (essay)
Unit 5: Industrialization & Global Integration
Work quietly for 3 minutes. Answer the following questions:

What was the Scientific Revolution?
Major advances?
Where does it happen, and why?
In what ways was this a cultural, as well as an intellectual, revolution?
What was the Protestant Revolution?
How did it change ideas about authority?
Review: Scientific Revolution
The least revolutionary of them all....
American Revolution, 1775-1787
C&C the Atlantic Revolutions

How does the idea of sovereignty change in this period? How do rulers justify their power?

What social movements emerge from these revolutions?

Explain the connection between revolutions and nationalism.
Questions to Consider
Atlantic Revolutions
Need to DISPLAY power
How to do this?
Ideas and practices that support political authority
Divine Right (Europe)
Use of Religion
Human Sacrifice
Adoption of Confucian rituals
Sources of Political Authority in 1700
Enlightenment: Progress and Debate
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Enlightenment ideas vary by location

Basic ideas:
Improvement is possible
Importance of reason and rationality
Question authority

Encyclopedia Project

Social changes: clubs, societies, etc

Often led to difficult relationship b/t philosophes and state/church
FR in MAJOR debt
Helped colonists in AmRev
Upper classes and clergy pay very little (if any) taxes

King Louis XVI calls for a meeting of the Estates General (first meeting in over 100 years) to deal with FR's finances

This does NOT go as planned....
French Revolution (1789-1815)
Enlightenment and Revolution
Enlightenment ideas about society and power support revolution

John Locke
Popular sovereignty
Social Contract theory

Who benefits from these new ideas?
MOSTLY middle-class, white men who had previously been denied political power
Basic info is well known (I hope!)
BR begins imposing more taxes after the 7 Years War and enforcing mercantilist policies
No representation for colonies in Parliament
Challenged local autonomy (town halls, etc), especially after the Intolerable Acts

Relative to Europe, the colonies were egalitarian
A Quick Detour....
Depictions of the Boston Massacre
What does the American Revolution change?
Enlightenment ideas put into action

Ends Britain's "first empire"

Accelerated democratic tendencies

No significant social transformation
Elites still in charge

Notion that people have the "right to revolution" does inspire people around the world
Things get revolutionary....
3 estates

3rd estate run amok
Declare themselves a National Assembly
FrRev Begins!

Unfair tax system
Aristocratic privilege no longer makes sense
High inflation and unemployment
Peasants treated terribly
Radical, Violent Revolution
Far more violent than the AmRev
End the aristocracy (and kill many of them)
Abolish slavery
Church subject to state
Execute king and queen
Reign of Terror
A New French Society
Declaration of the Rights of Man (1789)
New Calendar
Extend the vote to all men (why no women?)
Olympe de Gouges
Language of new beginnings

Seizes power in 1799
Preserved the more moderate aspects of FrRev (Napoleonic Code)
Reverse decision on slavery
Conquer most of continental Europe
Impose Revolution
Euros don't like this--> Inspires nationalism
Ends with Battle of Waterloo in 1815
Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804
Prior to the Revolution....
Saint Domingue was richest colony in the world
HUGE slave population

FrRev sparks violence in SD
Begins as slave revolt in 1791
Pits many factions against each other over the course of the revolution
Eventually, many slaves unite behind the leadership of Toussaint Louverture
Haitian Revolution: Changes
Rename country Haiti
Abolish slavery
Equality for all races
Divide up plantations
Haitian Revolution: Significance
Only successful slave revolt

Inspired slaves elsewhere (And created a lot of fear amongst slave owners)

Increased slavery elsewhere (Haiti now disconnected from world economy)

Results in the Louisiana Purchase
Spanish-American Revolutions
Creoles not happy with SP monarchy's attempts to control colonies...BUT...
Latin American revolutions limited and scattered in early 1800s
No tradition of local autonomy
Very stratified society

Because of Napoleon's conquests, most of Latin America is independent by 1826
Comparisons to North America
Society was more heterogeneous and stratified
Fear of revolt from below shaped the revolutions
Take longer periods of time
Distance b/t Spanish colonies means its nearly impossible to unite them all
Stronger regional identities also make unification impossible
Simon Bolivar: El Libertador
Venezuelan military and political leader who aided Spanish colonies in their attempts to gain independence
Jamaica Letter (1815)
Written while in exile
Advocates for Venezuelan independence, and urges colonies to unite
Social contract theory
Abolish slavery, Inquisition
1819-1831: Acts as first president of Gran Colombia

New Social Movements: Universal Male Suffrage
Revolutions throughout Europe in 1830, 1848, and 1870 lead to the expansion of political participation....for men

By 1914, all areas of western Europe, the US, and Argentina had universal male suffrage

This makes people question why this isn't extended to everyone
New Social Movements: Abolitionism
Slavery ended in most places b/t 1780-1890
Religious pressure
No longer economically necessary
Slavery "out of date"
BR leads the way with abolition--hosts major world conferences
Sometimes contested: Civil War in US
Russian serfdom ends in 1861
Life after slavery/serfdom generally not great
New Social Movements: Women's Rights
Mostly in Europe and US
Connection b/t revolution and reform movements with women's rights
Seneca Falls Convention: 1848
First conference about women's rights
By 1870s, movement is consciously focused on suffrage
Becomes a mass movement by 1900
Changes for the Better
Women admitted to unis (sometimes)
Higher literacy rates
(In some places) Better divorce Laws
(In some places) Property rights
(Some) Professions open up to women

Still a lot of work to do...
How would involvement in the "modern" world impact women's ability to have children? What was a woman's proper role?
Idea of a "nation" is relatively new

Prior to 19th century, foreign rule was common; loyalty was more local

This begins to change...
Religion erodes
Urban migration
Language standardizes

Nationalism: New way to form cultural bonds
Nationalism in Practice
Can lead to....
Germany and Italy
Balkan region

This is an idea that will cause problems leading up to WWI
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