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Our Solar System

Standard 1, Utah state core, Earth Systems
by

Cassie Grether

on 14 September 2016

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Transcript of Our Solar System

Our Solar System
The Terrestrial Planets
Inner Planets
The Gas Giants
the outer planets
C. What forces work together to keep planets in their orbits?
Earth
Why is it so special?
Mercury
Roman messenger god
size comparison
Moons: 0
Composition: rocks/iron rich core
Factoid -Atmosphere: very little to none



Mercury
factoids:
smallest planet in the solar system (smaller than some moons)
closest planet to the sun
orbits the sun in less than one Earth year
rotates three times every two times it orbits the sun (long days)
Mercury
Earth
Venus
Roman Goddess of Love
moons: 0
Composition: rocks/ iron rich core
atmosphere: very thick clouds cover the entire planet; intense pressures; air is mostly carbon dioxide

Roman Goddess of Love
Venus
factoids:
heavy volcanic activity; most volcanoes;
hottest planet due to its greenhouse effect
Roman Goddess of Love
Venus
factoids:
Only planet that rotates on its axis "backwards"(clockwise)
Nearly the same size as Earth
Earth
size comparison
Venus
Earth
named after dirt
moons: 1
composition: rocks/ iron core
atmosphere: nitrogen, oxygen & argon (mainly)
factoids:
Only known celestial body to harbor life

factoids:
only known planet to have plate tectonics
Mars
god of war
moons: 2
composition:
rock/iron rich core
atmosphere: thin;
carbon dioxide (mainly)
factoids
snows on Mars (dry ice and water ice)
factoids:
largest volcano in the solar system (Olympus Mons)
largest canyon in the solar system (Valles Marineris)
Earth
size comparison
Jupiter
moons: 67+
composition:
hydrogen & helium mostly
atmosphere: thick hydrogen & helium




King of the gods
size comparison
factoids
one orbit = 12 Earth years
The Great Red Spot is a raging storm for at least 300 years
largest moon in the solar system (Ganymede)
has rings of dust and rock

size chart
Io
rocky moon; Volcanoes & mountains
Europa
rocky moon with a surface of water and ice
Ganymede
rocky moon with a thick ice crust and probably salt water ocean beneath
Callisto
nearly the same size as Mercury
rocks & ice

The Galilean Moons
Jupiter
Saturn
father of Jupiter
moons: 62+
composition: hydrogen & helium
atmosphere: thick hydrogen & helium
factoids:
less dense than water
no solid surface
factoids:
rings of ices and dusts
takes 30 Earth years to orbit the sun
It's moon Titan has an atmosphere similar to Earth's with lakes of methane & ethane
Uranus
greek god of the sky
composition:
hydrogen, helium,
methane, & ammonia
moons: 27+
atmosphere:thick
hydrogen, helium, methane
factoids:
orbits sun every 84 Earth years
Uranus is tilted on its side so each pole faces the sun during some time of the year.

Neptune
moons: 13
atmosphere: thick hydrogen, helium methane


god of the sea
factoids:
fastest winds in the solar system
rings of ice and dust
last planet in the solar system
Neptune
Why do we have an abundance of life while it seems so scarce out in the solar system?
Reason #2
Not too hot and not too cold.

Just ... right.
This zone is called the habitable zone or the Goldilocks zone. This is the location from our star the sun that is at the right temperature to sustain life.
We believe that this water in liquid form is essential for life.
From what we can tell...
life began in the oceans.
Our early atmosphere was thick in carbon dioxide (CO2).
Which was perfect for early life forms and photosynthesis!
This early photosynthesis took CO2 and pumped out oxygen. This oxygen helped form the ozone layer which absorbs and blocks harmful radiation from reaching the planet.
NOTES: Why is Earth so special?
1. we are in the habitable zone (Goldilocks zone) which allows us to have liquid water on our surface (not too hot, not too cold)
2. Our atmosphere filters out harmful radiation from the sun.
Everything, everything, everything with mass generates gravity. The amount of that gravity depends to the mass of an object.

Everything, no matter its mass, pulls on everything else that has mass.
Gravity
Special note: this will be a test question!
Notes: What keeps the planets in their orbits?
C. Forces keep planets in their orbits:
Gravity between masses
Inertia - the tendency of an object in motion to travel in a straight line.

These two forces balance each other to keep the planets in their orbit.
Inertia
Inertia means that unless acted upon another force an object in motion will remain in motion in a straight line.
protosun spin
The Nebula Hypothesis
how solar systems are born
Important Terms (1 of 2)
solar system: a collection of planets and their moons in orbit around the sun, together with smaller bodies in the form of asteroids, meteoroids, and comets

nebula: an immense cloud of gas (mainly hydrogen) and dust in interstellar space
protosun: a large mass that forms by contraction out of the gas of a nebula

star: (astronomy) a celestial body of hot gases that radiates energy derived from nuclear reactions in the interior
Important Terms (2 of 2)
The Nebula Hypothesis
Actual images taken from Hubble telescope
Where is Hubble? (how do we get these images
Orion nebula
Protosun
Protosun forms at center and begins to spin
This spinning flattens out the disk and sends lighter elements outward
artist's rendition
Protoplanets & Star Birth
Fully Formed Solar System
Note that!
1. nebula collapses

2. protosun forms /begins to spin

3. spinning flattens disk/differentiates elements by weight

4. protoplanets begin to form & star birth

5. Fully formed solar system
How old is our Solar System?
4.6 billion years old
How do we know?
what is the evidence?
1. Age of the Earth
2. Age of meteorites
radiometric dating
is the key
The Modern Solar System
Made up of planets, their moons (satellites), asteroids, & comets
The Modern Solar System
Planets are divided into two categories
category
Made up of /
Names of Planets
terrestrial
planets (inner planets)
gas
giants (outer planets)
rocks
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
gasses and ices
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
IV. The Planets
a. The Terrestrial Planets
b. The Gas Giants
Our Solar System
Mercury
Roman messenger god
Mercury is fast orbiting the Sun in 88 Earth days.
Very little atmosphere
Long days (58 Earth days long)
No moon
Smallest planet
Closest to the sun
Very little or no atmosphere
How big is the Solar System?

1 AU is 93 million miles (150 million km)
This is the distance from the Earth to the sun.

Our farthest planet, Neptune, is 30 AU (4.5 billion km) from the Sun.
Time to scale things down a bit.
Actual distance from the Sun in miles
Calculated scaled down distance
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
We are using English units so we can count in "paces" or yards.
36,000,000
31,000,000
Distance from one solar system body to the next.
26,000,000
49,000,000
342,000,000
403,000,000
896,000,000
1,011,000,000
281 yards
249 yards
112 yards
Our scale: 1 yard = 3,600,000 miles
The Sun
I. Our Star the Sun
Our Sun is a star which means it has nuclear fusion at the core. This is NOT a chemical reaction where bonding is taking place. It is a nuclear reaction where one element is fusing into another larger element.
Our star is 4.6 billion years old and has about another 5 billion years left before it dies.
Corona is an aura of plasma that surrounds the Sun and extends millions of kilometers into space.
Seen here during an eclipse.
Its gravity is so large that it causes everything in the solar system to orbit it.
Heat and light transfer from with in through convection currents.
Coronal mass ejections shoot plasma into space at nearly a thousand kilometers per second.
CME's (Cornal Mass Ejections)
Sunspots are a location of localized cooling where magnetic field has broken the surface of the sun.
The core is millions of degrees Celsius and is where nuclear fusion is taking place.
Time to learn
Why Does the Sun Shine?
They Might Be Giants
II. Our Solar System
A. Consists of
things formed from the accretion disk long ago.
1. Planets
2. Moons
3. Dwarf planets (like Pluto, Eris, Makemake & more)
4. Comets and asteroids
B. What are asteroids and comets?
1. Asteroids
asteroid belt
Oort cloud
Kuiper belt
location: between Mars & Jupiter
Materials: mainly rock, iron & dust
Kuiper belt
location: past Neptune and extending far out
Materials: mostly rocks and dust/ some ices
Oort cloud
location: 50,000 AU or 1 light-year from the sun
Materials: mainly ice (comets)
Asteroids, Metoroids, Meteors, Shooting-Stars & Meteorites - what's the diff?
a. meteors, meteorites, and asteroids are all made up of rocks rich in iron.
- The difference is: metoroids are smaller than asteroids and.... location, location, location.
Asteroids & meteoroids are out in space.
meteors are shooting stars in our atmosphere.
meteorites are rocks from space on the planet.
Asteroid: airless objects of mainly iron and rock orbiting the sun.
a) Located?
b) Picture/diagram
Size: 6 meters (20 feet) (living room) to
840 km (583 miles) (state of Utah)
What is a Shooting Star?
A shooting star is not a star
It's not a star at all.
A shooting star's a meteor
That's heading for a fall.

A shooing star is not a star
Why does it shine so bright?
The friction as it falls through air,
Produces heat and light.

A shooting star or meteor
Whichever name you like.
The minute it falls down to Earth
It's called a meteorite.
2. Comets
Which way are these comets heading?
2. Comet:
a comet is a large ball of dust and ice. You can't tell by the tail! The tail moves away from the sun no matter the direction of the comet.
a) Located? orbiting in the Oort cloud or Kuiper Belt ( both located beyond Neptune.
Research on the planets
Group Performance
Investigate the outer solar system including the last four planets, their moons, Kuiper Belt, and Oort Cloud.
3.
Gather Information
about what they are made up of, how many moons they have (planets), how big they are, how far from the sun, and what makes them unique in the solar system.
4.
Compare
the planets with one another and contrast their differences and identify their similarities.
Make sure both partners have all of the information because their will be an Individual Performance regarding this information later.
Research on the planets
Group Performance
Investigate the inner solar system including the first four inner planets, their moons, and the Asteroid Belt.
1.
Gather Information
about what they are made up of, how many moons they have, how big they are, how far from the sun, and what makes them unique in the solar system.
2.
Compare
the planets with one another and contrast their differences and identify their similarities.
Make sure both partners have all of the information because their will be an Individual Performance regarding this information later.
Individual Performance
Research on the planets
5.
Compose
a comparison essay in your Assignment section of your binder comparing the inner solar system with the outer solar system.
Class Discussion
6.
Reflect
on how the solar system differences and similarities helps support the Nebular Hypothesis.
Diagram Creation: Solar System
You are to create a visual colored composition of the solar system,
DO NOT COPY A DIAGRAM FROM THE INTERNET! USE YOUR CREATIVITY!!!
Scale down the sun and planets to correct porportions. Include the sun, the planets and their moons (major ones), Asteroid Belt, and Kuiper Belt.

Also write next to each solar system object what makes it unique in the solar system. Make it creative and aesthetically pleasing. When you have completed this, have it checked off my Mrs. G and place it in your binder between pages 13 & 14.
You may use photographs of each object from the internet for a reference point, but no diagrams of the solar system.
Reason #1
Earth's magnetic field
Earth's magnetic field protects the Earth from CME (coronal mass ejections) from the sun by deflecting this harmful material away from the planet.
Why does Earth have a magnetic field?
The Earth is still hot inside with metal and molten core. As it spins it generates a large magnetic field that deflects charged particles shot out from the sun.
The Moon
Where did it come from?
How did it get there?
The Giant Impact Hypothesis
Let's jot down those notes so we can remember!
The name for
the leading hypothesis that explains how the moon formed is the Giant Impact Hypothesis.
Still got more notes... be patient.
This hypothesis explains:
1. Earth's tilt (23.5 degrees)
2. why the Moon is moving away from us a little bit each year
3. why the Moon and Earth have such
similar rock types.
Craters...
What's up with them?
Examine the moon. What do you see? Compare the near side with the far side.
Important Term

maria: a dark region of considerable extent on the surface of the moon (mainly basalt rock)
Why are there so many craters on the far side compared to the near side and on Earth?
What do you think?
What was the difference between the far side and the near side?
MISCONCEPTIONS
Common
Let's get things straight!
The moon rotates on its axis once each time it revolves or orbits around the Earth.
MISCONCEPTIONS
Common
Let's get things straight!
When the moon is only partial lighted the dark portion we see is produced by the moon's shadow. IT IS NOT THE SHADOW OF THE EARTH FALLING ON THE MOON.
ii. The moon
DOES NOT
change its shape.
iii. The moon is always a
SPHERE
MISCONCEPTIONS
Common
Let's get things straight!
Graphic Organizer
Phases of the Moon
Important Terms
waning: decrease in phase
waxing: increase in phase
eclipse: one celestial body obscures another
tide: the periodic rise and fall of the sea level under the gravitational pull of the moon and sun
Size comparision of the solar system with the Galaxy.
How big is the solar system again?
How big is the Milky Way Galaxy again?
Fun Video showing size of planets if they were as close as our moon.
Take out your diagram of the solar system. (Add distance between planets)
Now let's take it up a notch and make it bigger. Time to go out and walk the solar system.
Let's put our solar system distance in perspective.
If extra time
4 min Andromeda collision with Milky Way
For life to exist anywhere a few things must exist:
Must be safe from space
Must be safe for a long and consistent amount of time
Life (as we know it) needs liquid water
Must have radiation energy either from a star or other source
Although Venus and Mars are nearby....
Neither Venus nor Mars has a magnetic field.
Reason #2
Reason #3
We have water on our planet, AND because we are in the Goldilocks zone, it is in the liquid form.
Mars and Earth are the only planets in our solar system to be inside the Goldilocks or Habitable zone and the only ones we know of to have liquid water.
One day we hope to terraform Mars and create a livable planet. With a greenhouse effect temperatures could be great for sustaining life.
Mars
Earth
Our Moon
Luna
Formation of protoplanets and our moon. 2 minutes
That's about it for space for this class.
NEXT STEP:
Time to study
Day 1 (SUN/SAT): 15 minutes studying your notes
Day 2 (MON): TWO 15 minute study sessions reading your notes, but make sure you have a break of physical activity between sessions.
Day 3 (TUES): take a highlighter and mark everything you don't know already; up your study sessions to 3 and make sure you are taking your breaks!
Day 4 (WED): make (or use my cards) flashcards of everything you don't know. Study with 3 study sessions with your new study cards.
SPACE EXPLORATION
Space based telescopes
Satellites
Rockets
International Space Station
Rovers
Probes
Main purpose for voyaging to space in the beginning:
To advance scientific research
And developing military and strategic advantages against other countries.
Since then Japan, India, Europe, and China have sent probes or rovers to the moon.

The Soviet Union was the first to outer space.
United States was the first to put a man on the moon. It took them about 3 days in 1969.
International Space Station
Voyager 2
Voyager 1
Just left solar system 2012
New Horizons (2006)
Jupiter by 2015
1998
15 minutes ish
2,465 around Earth
asteriods, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Moon
Hubble and its amazing shots
Reason #4
Our atmosphere, especially the ozone layer, helps block out some harmful radiation from the sun.
http://www.mars-one.com/mission/roadmap
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/09/28/science/space/mars-nasa-flowing-water.html
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/29/science/space/mars-life-liquid-water.html?_r=0
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