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Transcript of Women's Rights
Presentation By: Maiya Jazwierska and Olivia Bruce
An overview of the Women's Rights movement during the early 1900s to 1920s
Origins of the Women's Rights Movement
The women's rights movement began officially in 1848 at the Seneca Falls Convention in Seneca Falls, New York. The convention was organized by two women, Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who were very influential leaders of the movement during the nineteenth century. At this famous conference, a very important document was created, called the Declaration of Sentiments, which was modeled on the Declaration of Independence. It listed all of the grievances that women had suffered and the rights that they deserved to have. The Declaration of Sentiments is one of the most essential documents of the women's rights movement, and was constantly used by suffragettes to justify and promote their actions.
Education and Economics of Women in the 1920s
In the 1920s, the women of America had
In the 1920s, the women of America had
AWSA vs. NWSA
Two organizations emerged as the principle leaders of the women's rights movement, the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) and the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA), founded in 1869. While both organizations worked towards the same goals of economic, political, and social equality for women, they had very different methods of achieving these goals. The NWSA was led by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton, and aimed to achieve women's voting rights by changing laws at the federal level through amendments to the Constitution. The AWSA, led by Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell, was more conservative in its actions by aiming to allow suffrage at the state level, by changing individual state constitutions. These two groups combined in 1890 to create the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), led by Stanton, which aimed to promote suffrage through individual states. Between 1910 and 1914, 7 states gave women the right to vote (California, Arizona, Oregon, Kansas, Illinois, Montana, and Washington), in addition to the four that had already passed suffrage laws (Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, and Idaho).
Contraceptive in the 1920's
Contraceptives give women the right to choose when to start a family and takes that power away from men. In 1916, the first birth control clinic was opened in New York by Margret Sanger. Just nine days after it was opened, the cops came in, shut it down, and arrested her. She was breaking the Comstock Act, which was passed in 1873. This act banned birth control as a whole; even though many women still used contraceptives if they had the means to get them. This was a really bad time because birth control was such a taboo subject. The rich could afford to get it from other countries, the poor would use douches before and after sex, and the women with pregnancies would mostly look to illegal abortions. The 1920s were not a good time for the knowledge or availability of contraceptives, but it was a stepping stone to new and better times.
National Woman's Party (NWP)
The NWP (originally the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage, renamed in 1916) was founded in 1913 by Alice Paul and Lucy Burns, both members of the NAWSA who believed that the NAWSA was not aggressive enough in its tactics for encouraging suffrage. The NWP was the main organization that led the suffrage movement, and it aimed for change in the federal government by passing an amendment to allow suffrage. The members were mostly young white women, and men were not allowed to join.
March on Washington
March 3rd, 1913: 5000 women under the NWP march on the White House to protest President Wilson's inauguration, claiming that he and the Democratic Party disenfranchised women and did not support the goals of the movement. They picketed the White House, and many were verbally harrassed, arrested, or beaten. The publicity this event gathered forced Wilson to announce his support for the women's rights movement, which indirectly led to the passage of the act that allowed women's suffrage several years later.
The Suffrage Movement
Suffrage marches, songs, and banners were used as common forms of dramatic, non-violent protest used by the suffragist movement. The National Woman's Party began regular picketing of the White House in January, 1917, which lasted about 18 months. These
, as they were often called, marched day and night, carrying banners and signs. Many became victims of harsh mob violence, both verbal and physical. Police began arresting the women in June 1917, under the charge of traffic obstruction. Women were beaten and jailed under unsanitary conditions, and many went on long hunger strikes and were force fed and threatened with insane asylums. The worst arrest came on November 15, 1917, called the
"Night of Terror",
where 33 women were severely beaten, almost to death, chained to the walls, and forcibly fed through tubes at the Occoquan Workhouse in Virginia. The NWP made women prisoners into heroes and martyrs, and widely circulated newspaper descriptions of their incarcerations gathered public support.
AUGUST 26TH, 1920:
THE NINETEENTH AMENDMENT TO THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION GIVING WOMEN THE RIGHT TO VOTE IS SIGNED INTO LAW.
The 19th Amendment
First proposed to Congress in 1878, and passed in 1919.
Tennessee becomes the 36th state to ratify the amendment on August 24th, 1920.
Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby signs into law on August 26th, 1920.
The 19th amendment forbids the right to vote to be denied on account of gender, giving women the right to vote.
Women's suffrage played a key role in the 1920s, especially in the Prohibition movement (Women, who had been involved in temperance reforms since the early 1800s, were a key element in passing the Prohibition Act).
Equal Rights Act
1923- Alice Paul proposes the ERA (Equal Rights Act or Amendment) which aimed to eliminate all discrimination of any type against women by guaranteeing full equal rights under law. It was passed by Congress in 1972, but to this day has never been ratified.
1. What was the name of the main organization of the suffrage movement, and who was it founded by?
2. What were some of the tactics used by suffragists to encourage change?
3. What happened on the "Night of Terror" in November 1917?
4. What were some of the slogans that women used on their banners for protests? (Hint: Look at the pictures.)
5. What did the nineteenth amendment do, what was the final state to ratify the 19th amendment and who signed it into law?
6. What was the Comstock Act and what did it make women in the 1920s use instead?
7. Who opened the first birth control clinic and what year?
8. How many women were employed in 1919 and what made the incline of that number over the next ten years?
9. How was the home life changing throughout the twenties?
If your group is an even number, answer these questions! If you are an odd number, submit your feedback here: https://docs.google.com/a/svvsd.org/forms/d/1q6Og2o9-4V6wZ-VW-7KoKLyGHnJXn1I2J-br6dAXRP4/viewform
Barber, Susan E. "One Hundred Years toward Suffrage: An Overview." National American Woman Suffrage Association Collection . N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. <http://www.memory.loc.gov/ammem/naw/nawstime.html>.
"National Woman's Party." Sewall-Belmont House and Museum. Institute of Museum and Library Services, n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. <http://www.sewallbelmont.org/learn/national-womans-party/>.
"Aug. 26, 1920 | 19th Amendment Takes Effect, Giving Women the Vote ." The New York Times. The Learning Network, 26 Aug. 2011. Web. 4 Feb. 2014. <http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/08/26/aug-26-1920-19th-amendment-takes-effect-giving-women-the-vote/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0>.
"Alice Paul (1885-1977)." National Women's History Museum. National Women's History Museum, n.d. Web. 4 Feb. 2014. <http://www.nwhm.org/education-resources/biography/biographies/alice-paul/>.
"National Woman's Party." The Social Welfare History Project. N.p., 2013. Web. 4 Feb. 2014. <http://www.socialwelfarehistory.com/organizations/national-womans-party/>.
Milliken, Nancy. "The Night of Terror, November 15, 1917 Women's Right to Vote." National Center of Excellence in Women's Health. UCSF, 3 Oct. 2013. Web. 4 Feb. 2014. <http://www.coe.ucsf.edu/coe/news/night_terror.html>.
History, Art & Archives, U.S. House of Representatives, Office of the Historian, Women in Congress, 1917–2006. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2007. “The Women’s Rights Movement, 1848–1920,” http://history.house.gov/Exhibitions-and-Publications/WIC/Historical-Essays/No-Lady/Womens-Rights/ (February 04, 2014)
Washington, DC: Arena Stage, 2010. Web. 5 Feb. 2014. <http://www.arenastage.org/shows-tickets/sub-text/2009-10-season/sophisticated-ladies/sophisticated-ladies.shtml>.
Book sources (online encyclopedia through Gale resources):
"The Women's Suffrage Movement." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. History: Government and Politics. Detroit: Gale, 2009. Student Resources in Context. Web. 13 Feb. 2014.
"The National Woman's Party." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. History: Government and Politics. Detroit: Gale, 2009. Student Resources in Context. Web. 13 Feb. 2014.
“This was an America where buying a single condom made you a criminal in 30 states; where priests told women who used black-market diaphragms that they would be haunted by the faces of their unborn children; and where some women like Sanger's devoutly Catholic mother, who got pregnant 18 times and had 11 children and 7 miscarriages, died an early death from the ravages of so many births.” (Conlin, Bloomberg Business)
Women in the Work Force
This was a huge time of change for the roles of women in the working world. The twenties were a time where women lived a life outside of marriage, this was brought upon by the war. When the boys came home, the working women did not go back to where they were before. 7 million women in 1919 to almost 11 million in 1929 had jobs outside of the home (Dobie).
Jobs Women Held:
-Teaching, domestic service, and shop work
-Jobs at hospitals, factories, and offices
>this was a whole new idea, women who were confident in their life style, dress, and sexuality.
-typists, telephone operators, and sales representatives
1925- Nellie Tayloe Ross becomes the first woman elected as a governor in the United States.
1928- First Olympics with women competing.
Like many other things in this time, education was not equal or fair yet but gave women many opportunities. By 1928, 39% of college degrees were given to women, where in 1900 it was only 19%. With more women getting jobs, more women needed to be educated on how to do those things.