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Interpersonal communication

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Nelson Chan

on 5 December 2014

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Transcript of Interpersonal communication

Communication:
Definitions of interpersonal communication
Interpersonal communication refers to…
1st:
"Is the
communication
that takes place between two person who have an established
relationship
; the people are in some way
connected
."
(Devito Joseph A., 2007, p.5)
Definitions of interpersonal communication
Leadership:
Definitions of interpersonal communication
Social Penetration Theory
Developed by
Irwin Altman
and
Dallas Taylor
in 1973

Explain the
process of development in interpersonal relationships

Stated that
reciprocity of behaviors
between individuals is existed

Also known as the
"Onion Theory"

Behaviors
can be divided into
different layers
, like an onion

Each layer represents
different level and extend
of
information
and
intimacy
of a relationship

Self-disclosure
Intentional sharing of personal information about oneself

Includes the exchange of both
high-risk and low-risk information
and
personal experiences

Can be ranged from:
1.)
Ideas and attitudes
2.)
Vulnerability
3.)
Feelings and values
4.)
Past facts and life stories
5.)
Future hopes, dreams, ambitions and goals
(Ignatius et al., 2007)

The exchange of information is like
the layers of onion
,
begins from peel to the core
and
cannot be returned

Social Penetration Theory
Intimacy, relationship and personalities
have to be developed starting from
the most outer layer to the core

The outer layer
-->
what public see
Core
--> reveal the information of
one’s private self

Establish intimacy and relationship
-->
Process of
self-disclosure
will be undergone
Methodology
A series of in-depth interviews

Sample size:
32
senior HR managers in medium to large organizations with more than 100 employees in Southern Australia.

12
male and
20
female
Aim of this study
To investigate what interpersonal communication skills that enhance employee commitment to the organization are most lacking in managers in supervisory positions

To gather information on the interpersonal communication skills managers are expected to have

To identify the interpersonal communication skills managers are expected to use to engender positive perceptions and commitment to the organisation.
Definitions
Social Penetration Theory
Interpersonal communication skills that enhance organizational commitment
Interpersonal Communication
The End
Derived from word “
communis
” or “
communicare
”, which means " to share"

Make facts, information, thoughts and requirements
common place
or
make them known

Is the exchange of
thoughts, messages, information
by way of
speech, signals or in writing

(Sri jin Kushal, 2010)
“Process of influencing others to understand and agree about
what needs to be done
and
how to do it
, and the process of
facilitating individual
and
collective efforts to accomplish
whereby shared objectives.”
(Gary Yukl, 2006, p.8)
Leadership communication:
“Is the
controlled, purposeful transfer of meaning
by which individuals influence a single person, a group, an organization, or a community.”
(Barrett, D., 2006, p.21)
2nd:
"Using
symbols
to represnt ideas in order in
share meanings
and create a
personal bond between people
."
(Solomon, D., & Theiss, J., 2013, p.8)
Definitions of interpersonal communication
Summary:
Interpersonal communication is a
continuous process

Communication is
from one individual to another

People
share information
in order to
understand other's feeling

Connection
and
relationships
between individuals
can be established
Communication Accommodation Theory
Change our communication style:

Modify our diction, rate, tone depends on different listeners

Various kinds of behavior and manner will be revealed depends on different listeners

Listeners can
receive information or messages easily

and effictively
during the communication process

Under-accommodation
(Self-centeredness person)
Self-disclosures are
too self-centeredness
or using
slang
or
technical terms

Communications become
rigid
and
no interaction
in it
Over-accommodation
(Fail to estimate the perception of listener)

A person is too
spoil
to the others

Always
says yes
to every requests

Will
consider others' feeling in advance
rather them their
own perferences
Communication Accommodation Theory
Social Penetration Theory
Intimacy, relationship and personalities can be developed

Process of self-disclosure will be undergone
Modify their diction, rate, tone depends on different types of listerner

Achieve an effective two-way communication and team work
The Impact of Team Building on Communication and Job Satisfaction of Nursing Staff
Aims/Background of the study
Enhancement on communication and job stisfaction among team members through team building strategies.
Methodology: participants, measurements
A group of pre-test and post-test was used

A demographic questionnaire
A staff communication evaluation tool
The IWS
The hospital employee perceptions survey
Sample size:

44
of the 52 people working on a medical–surgical unit in a general hospital
Nurses
Nursing assistants
Nursing secretaries/ monitor technicians
Results & Discussions
Communication Evaluation Tool

Pre-test VS Pro-test

Communication skill







Limitations and suggestions
Communication
is essential in
team-building process

Interpersonal communication
must be nurtured

Leaders/mangers should
encourage
staff
participating
in communication process

Interpersonal communication is a
two-way information exchange process
which
requires cooperation
between both individuals
Self-disclosure
Open up inner feeling
Not easy
Inappropriate self disclosure

Encourage disclosure
Develop a positive attitude
Access positive information
Leads them to behave in a more optimistic and confident manner

Be supportive
Have made him/her feel emotionally supported

Trust & Respect
Willing to share the personal thoughts with others
Recommendation
Example:

Disclosure is a two-ways interaction
Results
Conducted in
one on one basis

One and a half hour semi-structured interview
(Total
3
questions)

Interviewed concerning how they
select new managers
and how they
prepare managerial staff
to
deliver HR practices

In-depth discussions
to promote
exchange of information
and
elaboration
by respondents on the prime areas of this investigation
Interview
Limitation:
Cannot be generalized

Suggestions:
The gender of sample size
~Need to maintain a balance in gender distribution of survey

Only conducted in Southern Australia
~Can be conducted in other countries

Construct a survey and send to managers and their subordinates
Q1.)
The
interpersonal communication skills
that HR managers are looking for

Results:
Two main categories
concentrated on the
ways of exchanging message
:

36%
focused on
skills required to send messages
(eg. Clarity, Business context, Credibility, friendly)

18%
focused on the
characteristics of an effective listener
(eg. Empathy, Active listening, Body language)
Results
Results
Q2.)
How HR managers
encouraged supervisors
to
transmit information
to their
subordinates

Results:
46%
focused on
skills required to send messages
(eg. Clarity, Consistency, One-on-one, Two-way communication, Respect

25%
focused on
leadership skills
(eg. Trust, Honest, Transparency)

12%
focused on
clarify expectations

Q3.
What is the
most important aspect
of interpersonal communication that can contribute to the
improvement of employee commitment

Results:

59%
focused on skills for
delivering messages
(eg. Clarity, Consistency, Two-way communication)

25%
focused on
leadership skills

Orientation Stage
Exploratory Affective Stage
Gradually, individuals will enter the stage which they can be
more friendly and relaxed
in their
communication and interaction styles

Starting to
reveal ourselves
, expressing
personal attitudes
and
opinion

May
not
be the
whole truth
as we are still
not yet comfortable
to reveal the whole true us

Relationship in this stage usually consists
casual friendship

Exchange information like:

Interests
Hobbies
Preference in clothes, food or music
Affective Exchange Stage
In this stage, a
higher level of open communication environment
between individuals can be created

Starting to
share
about
personal and private matters

Exchange information like:

Personal goals
Achievements in life
Aspirations
Fantasies

Religious convictions
Deeply held fears

Criticism
and
arguments
may

be occurred

These relationships probably consist of
close friends
or
romantic partners
--> There may be
intimate touching
and
kissing
Stable Stage
The
core layer
in term of the
highest and deepest
level of
intimacy
,
personal thoughts
,
beliefs
and
values


Individuals are
able
and
comfortable
to exchange information of
self-concept

Core personality
and
the most intimate details
can be shared

It is a
continuous psychological interaction

The
emotional reactions
of the other person can be
predicted
Discussion
Sending
clear and consistent messages
were an
important element
in interpersonal communication

In order to improve commitment:

Managers needed to
be aware of
and
try to fulfill individual needs

Maintain a
two-way communication
,
be credible
,
respectful
and
value others
while encouraging one-to-one communication

These interpersonal communication skills
help motiviating employees
which ultimately leads to
an effective commitment
Communication Accommodation Theory
References
Chan Wai San, Nelson
Chan Yin Tung, Josephine
Cheng Lai Kwan, Nicole
Lau Kwun Hing, Henry
Li Chung Pang, John
Ng Oi Mei, Nandy

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[14053524D]
[14029571D]
[14029504D]
[14022507D]
[14019818D]

Altman, I., & Taylor, D. (1973). Social penetration theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart &\ Mnston.

Barrett, D. (2006). Leadership communication. McGraw-Hill. 21.

DeVito Joseph A. (2007). The Internation Book. Personal Education Inc. 5.

Griffin, E. (2009). A First Look At Communication Theory (7th ed). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Michael (2011). Under- and Over-Accommodation with Students. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.michaelbraun.me/2011/04/under-and-over-accommodation-with-students/.

Sri jin Kushal (2010).Business communication. FK Publication. 1.

Solomon, D., & Theiss, J. (2013). Interpersonal Communication: Putting Theory Into Practice. Routledge.5.

Travis, M. (Designer). (2012). Retrieved November 5, 2014 from:

Yukl, G. A. (2002). Leadership in organizations. Personal Education Limited, 8.
JESSALYN BRITTON (2008). Communication Accomodation. [ONLINE] Available at: http://theories.com/index.php?/Communication-Accomodation.html.

(N.A). Communication Accommodation Theory. [ONLINE] Available at: http://communicatewithchristy.wordpress.com/application-blog/communication-accommodation-theory/.
Limitation and suggestions
The most outer layer
of intimacy development

Sender and receiver are strangers
, they exchange
very little
amounts of information

Conversation is
short
and
simple

Communication style:
--> Follows the
standards of social desirability
and
norms of appropriateness

Exchange information like:

--> Biographical data
Name
Age

Individuals are
careful
in exchanging information in this stage
Demographic questionnaire was administered to
determine staff characteristics


The Staff Communication Evaluation Tool was applied to
measure effectiveness of communication

The IWS (Stamps, 1997) was used to
measure job satisfaction

The Continuous Employee Perceptions Survey is used annually by the hospital to
assess staff satisfaction
of all hospital employees

Methodology : Pre-test and post-test
Open communication and supportive interpersonal relationships have been linked with positive attitudes toward the work environment.
Results & Discussions
Strategies to
enhance communication
and provide an understanding of
group dynamics

Skill building to improve communication should be a managerial goal

With
improved communication
of internal staff, team members will become
more comfortable
in
addressing issues
among themselves,
solving problem
and conflicts together
Strengths and limitations
Pointed out the existence of
reciprocity of behaviors
between individuals

Highly flexible
as it
can be applied in many occasions of lifetime
(eg. Family, Friendship, Team, Workplace etc.)

Has
no restriction
on
specific age, character in society and gender

Uncertainty
is existed due to those four stages intimacy development might be
difficult to defined and proved
Full transcript