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Chapters 2 & 10

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Bianca Browning

on 17 May 2010

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Transcript of Chapters 2 & 10

Key terms:
Chpater 2: Origins of government Section 1: Early Influences Key Terms: 1) Constitution - a basic set of laws and principles
establishing a nation's government. 2) English Bill of Rights - a law passed by Parliament
in 1689 that forms on of the foundations of Britain's
unwrittent constitution. The bill prohibited the
monarchy from suspending the kaws, levying taxes,
or maintaining an army in peacetime without consent
of Parliament.
There were two main types of government in the early days; limited government and representative government.
Limited government - Before the 1200s there were few limits on government in England. For example, without
a written constitution monarchs could tax people or seize property at will, as well as give land to people who
were loyal to them. The English nobles - the wealthy landowners who enjoyed certain social and legal privileges -
were not happy with the monarch's unlimited power. In 1215 these nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta,
or "Great Charter" which limited the monarchy's power by helping establish the rule of law. By requiring English
monarchs to consider how their decisions would affect the people they governed, Magna Carta laid the foundation for government that promotes the public good. Government promotes the public good when it reflects the interests of
society as a whole instead of the narrow interests of the few or of one individual, such as a monarch. Representative government - has its roots in a council of nobles and high religious offiicials that advised monarchs. The advisory council eveolved into a bicameral legislature called Parliament. Nobles composed
the upper house, or the House of the Lords. The lower house, or the House of Commons, included lesser officials and local representatives. As representatives of the people, members of Parliament worked to limit the power of English monarchs. Section 2: independence 1) Tyranny - absolute rule by a government that ignores the rights and welfare of
the people. 2) Boycott - a refusal to do business with or buy the products of a company, an industry,
or a nation in order to pressure it into changing its policies. 3) Delegate - someone who is authorized to represent and act for others within a voting assembly,
convention, or other meeting in which a small group of individuals makes decisions for a larger
general group. 4) Unicameral - a legislative body that has one chamber or house. In this chapter, there were many important events that took place that lead to our independence from Britain.
Here is a list of them in order with descriptions of what they were about 1) colonies unsuccessfully attempted to unify under the New England Confederation,
which was the first confederation on english colonies in North America. The confederation was formed in 1643 to unite four new england colonies, largely for defense against american indians and England's European rivals. 2) The Albany Plan of Union was rejected by both the colonial and British governments. The Albany Plan of Union is a plan to unite the colonies in 1754. Proposed by Benjamin Franklin, the Albany Plan of Union called for a council of representatives from each colony to levy taxes, handle military matters, and regulate affairs with American Indians. A president-general with veto power was head of the council, whose acts would be law throughout the colonies unless vetoed by the British monarch. Never approved by the British and colonial governments, the plan was never put into effect. 3)The British government enforced a number of trade restrictions and taxes, including the Stamp Act. The Stamp Act was a 1765 law passed by Parliament to raise money by taxing paper goods. However, because of violent protests in the colonies, the tax was repealed a year after it was introduced. 4) Colonists wrote a Declaration of Right and Grieveances to protest the Stamp Act and other British policies and began to boycott British goods. 5) Five colonists were killed in what became known as the Boston Massacre. Tensions erupted when the colonies continued to protest even after the taxes were repealed. That's when British soldiers fired into a group of angry colonial protesters causing the deaths. 6) Angry colonists dumped British tea overboard in Boston Harbor. This event, known as the Boston Tea Party,
was a protest against a decision by Parliament to give a British company all rights to the tea trade in the North
American colonies. 7) The British government passed the Intolerable Acts in response to the Boston Tea Party in 1774 to further British control over the colonies. 8) The first continental congress sent King George III the Delcaration of Resolves which protested British policies and boycotted British goods until British colonial policies were changed. 9) Growing tensions led to the battles between British troops and colonial militia at Lexington and Concord. 10) The Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4, 1776. Key Information: Key Information: fkhlfkh;lfgkh;lfkgl;hkf' Section 3: The First National Government Key Information: Articles of Confederation caused for a weak
government for five reasons: powers, limits on power,
cultural differences, economic differences, and gegraphic
isolation. 1) Powers (unicameral legislature) - the congress -
any amendment to the Articles required the approval
of all 13 states - no national executive or judicial branch. 2) Limits on Power
-No president or executive branch
- No national court system
- No officials to enforce laws
-No power to tax
-No power to regulate trade
- No power to establish national armed
forces (each state raised its own troops
under the direction of Congress)
- Mjaor laws required approval of 9 out
of 13 states to pass 3) Cultural Differences - Many citizens had their own religious beliefs and came from different places like England, France, Germany, and Sweden. Cultural differences raised concerns about a union that was tied too closely together. Many people feared that a strong unified government might force some groups to give up their beliefs. 4) Economic Differences - States feared that economic interests of certain regions would win unfair advantages under a strong national government. 5) Geographic Isolation - The size of the new nation also made it
difficult to form ties among the states. Transportation between
northern ans southern states was not as easy or quick. Section 4: The Constitutional Convention Rival Constitutional Plans Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan Executive Branch Legislative Branch Judicial Branch Powers of National Government Strong executive who is chosen by legislature and carries out laws made by legislature. Bicameral legislature
Membership based on stes's population
First house elected by people
Second house elected by first house form among candidates nominated by states. A judiciary that includes a supreme court and lower courts and is elected by legislature. To levy taxes
To make national laws
To regulate trade Weak executive controlled by legislature. Strong unicameral legislature
Each state represented equally with one vote apiece
Representatives chosen by state legislatures. A supereme court with justices named by legislature To levy taxes
To regulate trade compromises reached
by the delegates at the
constitutional convention: a.) Representation in the Legislature: bicameral legislature, representative in one chamber, and House of Representatives would be based on population. b.) Slavery: The delegates agreed to count 3/5 of the total slave population. c.) Trade: Decided that Congress could not ban the importation of slaves and couldn't tax goods that were exported to other countries. d.) Presidency: President would be chosen by state electors <<< number would match the number of representatives in both houses of congress. Section 5: Ratifying
the Constitution The battle to create a new government did not end with the signing of the Constitution. First, nine states had to ratify the document in special Constitutional Conventions, and the outsome of the ratification process was by no means certain. Both supporters and opponents of the Constitution prepared for ratification battles in each state.
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