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EDRE 621 Assignment 2
Transcript of EDRE 621 Assignment 2
To be Religious Introduction What is this resource? Historical Context Theoretical Approaches to religion To Be Religious Cathechetical Approaches To Teach Religion Moran, 1991 states that to teach people religion you need to have an aim "to understand" (p.252). He suggests that it is hard understand a phenomenon, like that of religion without having some knowledge or experience with it (Moran, 1991).
When evaluating teaching people religion there are two perspectives which need to be analysed; the Educational Approach and the Phenomenological Approach. Local Context How to use this resource as a new religious educator OF
RELIGION Language, Context and early beginnings... What is Religion? "The whole of religious education is not a terribly complex project. It requires that the 'teacher' know which of the two processes we are engaged in at a particular time and place."
Moran, 1991, p.252 Moran's Statement Rummery Rossitier Moran The dogmatic approach, previously referred to as the traditional, magisterial or catechism approach, was first developed with the opening of Australian Catholic schools. Some Catholic schools were still teaching religious education using this approach up until the 1960s (Whenman, 2012 p.1). This approach concentrated its teachings on the Catechism; ensuring that student’s rote learnt the content with there being little or no reference to the sacred text of the Bible (Rummery, 1977, p.305). Rummery stated that the dogmatic approach was regarded as a deep devotional ritual with significant reminders of the ancient wisdom and doctrinal perspectives of the faith (p. 306).
Teachers and students were seen to be knowledgeable about their faith as this approach to teaching religious education focused on rote learning of the content. The resources and didactic teaching methods were based solely on the Catechism and thus allowed little room for personal experience, interpretation or critical thinking by the students. This method allowed for consistency of the content and instruction delivery and students were assessed using a question and answer examination.
There are a number of weaknesses within the approach which would not allow it to progress into the modern religious education classroom. The dogmatic approach concentrates on teaching Catholic traditions rather than the holistic Christian tradition which meant that students were not given the opportunity to encompass and experience the faith and perspectives of children outside the Catholic traditions. Thus a culturally diverse classroom would not engage or relate to the dogmatic approach of religious education.
The teachers are seen to be the paramount focus in this approach with there being little reliance on the parents and caregivers to ‘teach’ and instruct the students in their faith journey. Thus, rejecting the statement of Moran, 1991 where he suggests that all people, clergy, parents and caregivers can be teachers of the faith. The approach further disengaged students from the learning process. The dogmatic approach used an authoritarian approach to teaching and thus little engagement occurred between the students and their teacher. This would result in an inability for students to be able to interact and engage completely with the content presented to them.
Overall, the dogmatic approach was seen to be a deep devotional, tradition based approach for teaching rote learning of the Catholic faith. However, it did not allow for student interaction, critical thinking or allow them to interact with their faith community or progress along a journey of faith in an engaging or fulfilling way.
Dogmatic Approach Kerygmatic Approach Examples from St John's College Examples within the school context Role of the 'Teacher' Cathechetical Approaches Educational Approach Phenomenological Approach Examples within the School Context The role of the teacher As can be seen throughout this resource there are numerous ways of implementing each approach and perspective within a religious education classroom.
1. Analyse the effectiveness of each approach detailing the approach you would choose to apply in your classroom.
2. The Phenomenological Approach allows for cross curriculum structure, identify an area where you would use the approach and clarify the elements of religious education.
3. To teach religion or to teach how to be religious? Analyse the above statement with reference to the information in this prezi.
4. Analyse and evaluate, with reference to Moran's statement the type of 'teacher' you will endeavor to be. Evaluative Reflection This 'prezi' is a self-paced learning resource for all new religious educators at St John's College Woodlawn.It has been established to ensure that you will acquire and develop specific skills, knowledge and help you to improve pedagogical practices as your teaching experience heightens. The Lismore CEO acknowledges that all Religious Educators need to be educated and have knowledge of the historical, theological and ecclesiastic aspects of the tradition. This prezi will heighten your understanding of being a 'teacher' and the challenge faced by Religious Educators when delving into the depths of religion and being religious. This is a reflective process and will reiterate Moran's statement throughout as well as use questions to prompt you to reflect on your journey of teaching religious education. Welcome to the Religious Education prezi. This resource has been adapted with reference to Gabriel Moran's statement about the way people 'teach' religion. This statement is complex and addresses the encompassing historical, theological and catechetical approaches of the past. This resource is a reflective journey for new religious educators at Woodlawn. It allows for personal reflection, heightened knowledge and skills for 'teaching' religious education. St John's College Woodlawn is a co-educational Catholic Secondary College situated in a charming rural setting 5km from Lismore and half an hour from Ballina and Byron Bay. The College enrolments have increased from 670 in 2004 up to 785 in 2012.
The College is fortunate to have Father Paul Pidcock, S.M. as its Chaplain. Fr. Paul is the Superior of the Marist Community at Woodlawn and is a long serving member of staff. As a teacher, Bursar, musical Director and Priest, he brings a wealth of experience and wisdom to the role of Chaplain and Pastor to our school community.
Drawing on the tradition and spirit of the priests and brothers of the Society of Mary (Marists), the staff and parents work as partners and collaborators in the mission of "building a new Church in the spirit of Mary."
http://www.lisjclism.catholic.edu.au/ Morris Ryan, 2007 wrote an article which reflects on the history and forms of religious education in catholic schools. He suggests that our task as religious educators is to work our way through the forest and to make sense of the discovery. He states that it is a complex field and that part of the issue in religious education is the lack of clarification in language and terms used.
Historically there have been numerous approaches to religious education. Ryan, 1999 states that there are three significant approaches which emerged for classroom religious education. These include the catechetical, educational and phenemenological perspectives. These, along with some other perspectives will be incorporated and discussed throughout this interactive prezi. "Religious educators seem unable to agree on the meaning of even the most foundational words and descriptions. Various theorists and practitioners use the same words to mean different things and different words to mean the same thing."
Ryan, 2007, p.4 1. How important is understanding language for an ability to deliver the correct context?
2. Ryan states that there are many people who teach using the same words which have different meanings. Have you ever stumbled across similar words which have a different contextual meaning? If so how important is it to clarify the appropriate meaning?
3. Religious education language is complex. Test your knowledge; define the following;
d) evangelisation Questions to ponder.... If you don't know any of these terms , try compiling a Glossary of terms for future reference Rummery was seen as an evolutionary religious educator, as he was the first to suggest that religious education could be taught in a different way other than catechesis. Rummery wrote about three distinct periods, he did this as they coincided with the Bishop Plenary Council sessions. Between 1872 and 1972 Rummary provides three periods of time, the first two periods provide the best description of what the dogmatic /catechism approach was like while the third period explains a transitional time in the 'teaching' of religious education. This introduces the kergymatic approach.
Rummery explains a transitional process in the time of religion. Rummery says that during his time of writing there was remarkable uniformity and a general last of evolution in the concept of religious education in catholic schools. (1977, p.302) Rossitier was a student of Rummery and presents an Australian perspective of catholic education. His time period begins in the 1980's and spans until present. His main focus was the Educational Approach however he had a phenomenological perspective evident. Moran, 1991 wanted to explain the distinction between the meaning of religious education. He believed that there were two distinct and sharply contrasting process; teaching people religion and teaching people to be religious in a particular way. (p.250)The catechetical perspective to religious education developed the concept of teaching people to be religious in a particular way. The notion of catechetical in this instance refers to religious education being primarily catechesis (Whenman 2012, Module 4, Topic 1). It encompasses the dogmatic, kerygmatic and life experience approaches within this perspective. Research each of the theorists. Examine their approaches and perspectives on religious education. Complete a SWOT analysis for each theorists and with your findings draw up a table like the one on the next slide and complete. Time to ponder... Strength Weakness Rossitier Rummery Moran
The Kerygmatic approach to Religious education occurred in the mid 1960’s. It was based on the proclamation of the message of salvation as found in the Scripture. This approach grew out of the work of Jungmann (1962) and Hofinger (1962) who had been influenced by the upsurge in scriptural scholarships in Europe. The kerygmatic approach used the key stories in the scripture as the focus of religious education.
Jungmann called for a kerygmatic approach; literally, a "proclamation of the Good News" that would employ a more biblical and mystagogical language, with the hope of generating a more unified, harmonious (and less fragmented) approach to catechesis. The kerygma, the proclamation of the good news, was before all else a joyful experience, an experience that must be lived as well as explained.
Hoping to move the practice toward this view, Jungmann proposed two moves for the renewal of a joyful and unitary catechesis: First, the reconsideration of early Christian catechetical practices as sources for renewed practice, and second, the expansion of the imagined content of catechesis to embrace scripture and liturgy as well as doctrine. Jungmann knew that these proposed moves could be made only with the cooperation of the clergy. He recognized that renewing catechesis first meant attending to the theological education of the clergy (Gallagher, 2001).
One of the biggest criticisms for this approach was the adult focused content. Many argued that the content was adult focused and continued to be delivered regardless of the level or maturity of the students. This method showed little regard to differentiation or learning differences within the students. While this approach is much more student centred than the dogmatic approach there is still a presumption that all students are believers and that the history of salvation within the scripture is paramount. While the kerygmatic approach made movements to express the “good news” of the bible it still made a presumption of faith and lacked differentiation of content. The role of the teacher in the catechetical approaches is firstly to be an instructor, to guide the students to rote learn the information and to teach Catholic traditions not Christian traditions. It also encompasses the narrow doctrinal approach of the catechism thus suggesting to 'teachers' that this approach is limited in its ability to fit into a diverse faith classroom. It does not allow the 'teacher' to ask for personal experience, opinion or refer the students to the bible. It provides a superficial understanding of the scriptures and is completely focused on Catholic rather than the holistic Christian faith. In saying this there are many opportunities where this approach can be used effectively within the RE KLA, especially as it allows for prescriptive teaching and a deep devotion to the tradition. After reading the catechetical approach information you should now have an understanding of the role of a teacher using this perspective. Using your knowledge of the classroom and context of the RE course identify a list of Catechetical examples evident in St John's College Woodlawn. Compare them with the list created on the next slide.
Create a SWOT analysis for the catechetical approach to teaching religious education. Time to ponder.... Sacramental Program - guided by Fr Pidcock. We offer students the following sacraments
a) First Communion
Mass, Liturgies and Class Prayer Examples within the school context RE Centre, Spiritual Gardens and Kelly Park Examples within the school context RE Curriculum and Syllabus Examples within the school context Each morning every homegroup at St John's joins in with a daily prayer, uniting together regardless of faith backgrounds.
Masses and liturgies are regularly celebrated throughout the school year with the Ministry team working tirelessly to ensure all celebrations are recognised. These include Ash Wednesday, Feast of the Assumption, Graduation Masses, Advent and Christmas Liturgies. Students are involved in all aspects of the celebration from alter serving, choir, readers to drama presentations.
Each religion class celebrates reconciliation and a class mass each term with Fr Paul. The RE Centre at Woodlawn is complete with an alter, resources and classroom setting. It can be transformed to celebrate masses, reconciliation or use as a resource room for assessment work for students.
Kelly Park is a significant area with the background overlooking holy statutes of Mary and Jesus and the reflection of the stained glass windows from the Chapel. Many teachers use this area for their RE lessons.
St John's College is a parish school which underpins all of the aspects of the Catholic School's Office Essential Framework in their Religious Education curriculum and planning. We use the text To Know, Worship and Love as well as Living Religion and other CSO mandated resources in our Religion classrooms. An educational approach resists the reduction of religious education solely to concern with Church matter or maintenance of the Church community: the "ultimate goal is to assist people to think, feel, imagine, act and grow religiously in an intelligent manner" (Scott, 1984, p. 336). For religious educators using this approach, education is seen as a life-long and life-wide concern. It is not isolated to texts or a teacher it is wide reaching with a variety of contexts and all activities within the Church community educate the people who participate (Ryan, 1999, p.22). Ninian Smart (1989) is the predominant theorist of the phenomenological approach. It is termed a descriptive and comparative approach to studying religions (Ryan, 1999, p. 25). A key feature of this approach is the personal reflection. It allows for a great deal of freedom and possibility as compared to other religion programs.
At Woodlawn, it is evident that there are elements of this approach however it is not as widely used as others mentioned in this prezi. Educational Approach Examples Social Justice Committee and Yodifee House Caritas, Project Compassion ,
Soup Kitchen & Vinnies The Syllabus, GodPlan and Wellbeing Personel Phenomenological Examples Studies of Religion Course and Reflective Work Programs In the education approach the teacher is seen as an intelligent inquirer as with the student. All activities participated in within the classroom setting are not to enhance belief or commitment to a particular religious group. The classroom is seen as more than a place for teaching it is a place to create, believe and imagine (Ryan, 1999, p.22).
The phenomenological approach teacher is a seeker who needs to gather information about a broad range of religious traditions. Judgment on validity and worth is limited in this approach (Ryan, 1999, p.24). The Social Justice Committee (SJC) is made of young students ranging from year 9 through to year 12 who have a passion for helping others and living their faith. The SJC run numerous charity events throughout the year including; walk a mile in my shoes, hearts all over the world, spring flings and much more. Each fundraiser has a goal and is a true representation of the commitment and Marist way of life at St John's.
Yodifee House is a Marist Mission charity for Cambodian's with disabilities. Each year Woodlawn takes a group of Year 9 and 10 students to Cambodia for 2 weeks to experience the world of the less fortunate and to teach and see what the funds raised throughout the year can provide for the developing country. The SJC has been nominated and been the recipient of Kids in Community awards and is an exemplary initiative of living the catholic faith. Fr Paul, our College Priest is the leader in these educational approach examples. There are over 100 student volunteers who participate as members of the Vinnies group, soup kitchen and commit to promoting charity organisations like Caritas. We hold numerous appeals throughout the year which all students support, ranging from casual clothes days to Christmas Hamper appeals for less fortunate families. The Syllabus, GodPlan (National Religious Education Assessment Year 8) and well being personal all assist in the development of religiously literate and intelligent adults who can engage in religious reflection concerning important contemporary issues (Ryan, 1999, p.22).
The Syllabus illustrates the key learning areas, outcomes and aims of the course, it allows for engaging teaching and learning strategies and incorporates religious reflection. The National Assessment allows for reflection of the religious content from students past schooling. We have a well being counselor who is on hand to assist in times of grief, concern, trouble or in times of personal reflection. Marist Youth Leadership
Specialised Religious Education Staff Other Examples The HSC and Preliminary Studies of Religion Courses allow students to study other religions. This allows for personal reflection and an ability to suspend preconceived ideas and judgments. There are also opportunities for students to use this approach in cross curriculum areas for example Society and Culture :Intercultural Communication' unit and HSIE in Stage 4 and 5 in Investigating the Past and Indigenous Worlds units. Is there enough structure in the educational approach to support the catechesis of the catholic faith?
Is it too hard to find a 'happy medium' for academics and faith development?
Does the phenomenological approach belong under the umbrella of Religion or should it be supported in other facilities?
Critique of the approaches Gallagher, J. (2001). Soil for the seed: Historical, pastoral and theological reflections on educating to and in faith. Essex, England: McCrimmons. [Chapter 3 - Critique of Catechisms, pp. 56 – 71]
Moran, G. (1991). Understanding religion and being religious. Professional Approaches for Religious Educators (PACE). 22, 249-252
Rossiter, G. (1982). The need for a 'creative divorce' between catechesis and religious education in Catholic schools. Religious Education, 77(1), 21-40.
Rummery, R. M. (1975). Catechesis and religious education in a pluralist society. Sydney: EJ Dwyer. pp. 180 – 191.
Rummery, G. (1977). The development of the concept of religious education in Catholic schools 1872 - 1972. Journal of Religious History, 9(3), 302 - 317.
Rummery, G. (2001). Catechesis and religious education in a pluralist society revisited. Paper presented at the Second National Symposium on Religious Education and Ministry. (Also published in JRE: Rummery, G. (2001). Catechesis and religious education in a pluralist society revisited. Journal of Religious Education, 49(2), 4-15.)
Ryan (1997). Foundations of religious education in Catholic schools. Katoomba, NSW: Social Science Press. Chapter 5 - Change and Controversy: Life Experience Catechesis. pp. 51 – 67.
Ryan, M. (1999). The classroom religion program in Catholic schools: Three rival conceptions of curriculum. Journal of Religious Education, 47(3), 19 - 26.
Ryan, M. (2007). A common search: the history and forms of religious education in Catholic schools. Brisbane, Australia: Lumino Press. Chapter 1 – The education of Christians in the early Church pp. 13 – 34.
Scott, K. (1984). Three traditions of religious education. Religious Education, 79(3), 323 - 339.
All Images accessed from https://www.google.com.au/imghp?hl=en&tab=ii on 29th Sept 2012
APA References Gabriel Moran (1981) is a religious educator who is specifically interested in the meaning of religious education. His perspectives were deemed the Educational Approach and will be the centre of this prezi. You have now completed your introductory prezi as a new religious educator. This resource was a tool to give you historical background and enable you to reflect and analyse your learning experience.