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Grammar

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by

Jordan Terriere

on 14 May 2014

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Transcript of Grammar

What are we gunna learn?
Top 20 Grammar Errors
Sentence Structure


Top 20 Errors
http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/everyday_writer/20errors/default.asp
Commas
Missing comma...
after an introductory element
in a compound sentence
with a nonrestrictive element
in a series
Unnecessary commas

Missing Comma with an Introductory Element
When I was in the woods I think I heard a Bigfoot call.

When I heard the strange noises I ran to my car, but it wouldn't start.

Missing Comma with an Introductory Element
Last weekend when I was in the woods, I think I heard a Bigfoot call.

When I heard the strange noises, I ran to my car, but it wouldn't start.

Zombies, Bigfoot, and Unicorns -- oh my!
Missing Comma in a Compound Sentence
Vampires can't go in the sun and they don't care for garlic.

You can tell if someone is a vampire by looking for pointy teeth but that does not always work.


Missing Comma in a Compound Sentence
Vampires can't go in the sun, and they don't care for garlic.

You can tell if someone is a vampire by looking for pointy teeth, but that does not always work.

Missing Comma with a Nonrestrictive Element
The zombie who hadn't eaten in weeks was too tired to chase me. Lucky me!

Zombies even though they have opposable thumbs can't seem to work doorknobs.
The zombie, who hadn't eaten in weeks, was too tired to chase me. Lucky me!

Zombies, even though they have opposable thumbs, can't seem to work doorknobs.
Missing Comma with a Nonrestrictive Element
Missing Comma in a Series
Missing Comma in a Series
The unicorns are smart majestic and surprisingly dangerous.

I want my unicorn to take me on a ride to Hawaii London Paris and the moon!
The unicorns are smart, majestic, and surprisingly dangerous.

I want my unicorn to take me on a ride to Hawaii, London, Paris, and the moon!
Parts of a Sentence
Independent Clause:
Has a subject and a verb
Is a complete sentence

Example: A pirate's favorite pet is a parrot.
Parts of a Sentence
Dependent Clause:
has a subject and a verb but does not express a complete thought.
Not a full sentence.
Must be attached to an independent clause.
Example: When the pirate lifted his eye patch.
Some cues that you are dealing with a dependent clause....
Dependent clauses often start with words like:

after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to, since, though, unless, until, whatever, when, whenever, whether, and while.
(When the pirate lifted his eye patch.)
Turn the dependent clause...
into an independent clause...
(The pirate lifted his eye patch.)
by removing the marker word.
(When)
Comma Splice
Using a comma to separate two independent clauses (full sentences).
The Lockness Monster is real, I saw it when I was on vacation.
How to fix a comma splice or fused sentence:
Separate into two sentences
Link with a comma and coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet)
Use semicolon
Rewrite the two clauses as one independent clause
Rewrite one independent clause as a dependent clause
Fused Sentence (aka run-on sentence)
Two independent clauses joined with no punctuation

The Lockness Monster majestically jumped out of the lake it was so cool!
Sentence Fragment
A dependent clause or an incomplete sentence.

Examples:
When Dracula said "blarhh blarrh blarhhh!"

Dracula's coat.
How to Fix a Sentence Fragment
Either turn it into an independent clause by removing the dependent marker word and making sure it has a subject and verb.

OR connect it to an independent clause (if it is a dependent clause)


When Dracula said "blarhh blarrh blarhhh!" I was very frightened.

Dracula's coat is long and flowy.

http://sufjan.com/post/64008392202/dear-miley-i-cant-stop-listening-to-getitright
Sufjan vs. Miley
http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/mileycyrus/getitright.html
http://www.vice.com/read/dear-sufjan-a-copy-editor-corrects-sufjan-stevenss-open-letter-to-miley-cyrus
How to transform your dependent clauses.
Semicolons

Link two independent clauses with no connecting words.
The fairy was tall; Her head practically brushed the ceiling.
Activity
You and a partner will be assigned one of these common comma or semicolon errors. Together, write three sentences that exhibit the mistake you were assigned (comma splice, missing comma, etc.). Note how to fix these errors.

You will write these on the board to be shared, and corrected, by the class.

You can either write sentences using the theme of your research project, or a fantasy theme of your choice.
Unnecessary Commas
When I saw the goblin I was, super excited!

Goblins, who are tall, are hard to come by.
Summary of Activity
Write 3 wrong sentences using your error.
Know how to correct them.
Write them on the board.
Full transcript