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The Cold War

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Louange Mwajuma

on 14 January 2014

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Transcript of The Cold War

The Cold War
Iron Curtain
Truman became much more suspicious of communist moves than Roosevelt had been, and he became increasingly suspicious of Soviet intentions under Stalin.

Truman and his advisers saw Soviet actions in Eastern Europe as aggressive expansionism which was incompatible with the agreements Stalin had committed to at Yalta the previous February.
The U.S had a new President, and the war was ending
During the war and in the name of Allied unity, Roosevelt had brushed off warnings of a potential domination by a Stalin's dictatorship in parts of Europe.

He explained that "I just have a hunch that Stalin is not that kind of a man" and reasoned "I think that if I give him everything I possibly can and ask for nothing from him in return,
noblesse oblige
, he won't try to annex anything and will work with me for a world of democracy and peace.
2. Britain had a new Prime Minister
The Red Army effectively controlled the Baltic states, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania. Refugees were fleeing out of these countries fearing a Stalinist take-over. Stalin had set up a communist government in Poland. He insisted that his control of Eastern Europe was a defensive measure against possible future attacks and believed that it was a legitimate sphere of Soviet influence.
Potsdam Conference
After the war, Germany and Berlin would be split into four occupied zones.
Stalin agreed that France would have a fourth occupation zone in Germany, but it would have to be formed out of the American and British zones.
Germany would undergo demilitarization and denazification.
Roosevelt obtained a commitment by Stalin to participate in the U.N.
Yalta conference
Key Points
February 4th- 11th 1945
july 17th- August 2nd 1945
1. The Soviet Union was occupying Central and Eastern Europe
The Truman Doctrine
The Truman Doctrine was an international relations policy set forth by the U.S. President Harry Truman in a speech on March 12, 1947, which stated that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent them from falling into the Soviet sphere.
President Harry S. Truman told Congress the Doctrine was "to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." Truman reasoned, because these "totalitarian regimes" coerced "free peoples", they represented a threat to international peace and the national security of the United States.

Truman made the plea amid the crisis of the Greek Civil War (1946–1949). He argued that if Greece and Turkey did not receive the aid that they urgently needed, they would inevitably fall to communism with grave consequences throughout the region.
President Harry Truman
Born in 1884
During World War I, Truman served in combat in France as an artillery officer in his National Guard unit.
Two weeks after the Declaration of Liberated Europe was signed, The Soviet Union pressure the King of Romania to appoint a communist government.

The soviet Union failed to uphold the Declaration of Liberated Europe. They maintained military presence in Eastern European nations; forcing these nations to transform to communist government.

The communist nations of Eastern Europe became known as satellite nation. Although not directly under soviet control they had to remain communist and soviet allies.
The Marshall Plan
The Marshall Plan was the American initiative to aid Europe, in which the United States gave economic support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to prevent the spread of Soviet Communism.
Known as the father of containment
Writes Article X that becomes the core of American foreign policy with soviet Union
it states : USSR has eternal conflict with capitalism and will try ans use controllable Marxists to fight capitalists.
USSR is expansionist but not adventurist
George Kennan
The Berlin Blockade
The Berlin blockade (24 June 1948 – 12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War. During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under Allied control.

Their aim was to force the western powers to allow the Soviet zone to start supplying Berlin with food, fuel, and aid, thereby giving the Soviets practical control over the entire city.
The Berlin Airlift
In response, the Western Allies organized the Berlin airlift to carry supplies to the people in West Berlin. Aircrews from the United States Air Force, the British Royal Air Force, the Royal Australian Air Force, the Royal New Zealand Air Force, and the South African Air Force flew over 200,000 flights in one year, providing up to 4700 tons of necessities , such as fuel and food, to the Berliners.
Joseph Stalin
Born in the republic of Georgia in 1878-79
born Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili
Major revolutionary during the Russian revolution
took Power over the Bolshevik party after the death of Vladimir Lenin
He was the General secretary of the USSR and he would eventually become the The Premier of the Soviet Union
The Leader of the USSR from 1924 until his death 1953
His mother Ketevan Geladze was a housekeeper
She was the scarlet woman of the town
Her spouse was Besarion Jughashvili
In 1937.When his mother dies, Stalin sends the head of his secret police to represent him. He also gets various men to act as mourners.
When Stalin was sixteen, he received a scholarship to attend the Georgian Orthodox Tiflis Spiritual Seminary in Tbilisi.
Stalin discovered the writings of Vladimir Lenin and decided to become a Marxist revolutionary, eventually joining the Bolsheviks in 1903 and becoming one of their chief operatives in the Caucasus.
He takes the Alias Coba
He is arrested six time before he is sent into exile.
During this period, he transforms himself from Coba to Joseph Stalin.
Ekaterina "Keto" Svanidze
Stalin's first wife.
Gives Birth to a son; Yakov Dzhugashvili.
She dies of Typhus at age 22
Yakov dzugashvili
was one of Joseph Stalin's three children
Yakov was the son of Stalin's first wife, Ekaterina Svanidze.
He served in the Red Army during the Second World War, and was captured, or surrendered.
Yakov and his father Stalin never got along.
Dzhugashvili served as an artillery officer in the Red Army and was captured on 16 July 1941
The Germans later offered to exchange Yakov for Friedrich Paulus, the German Field Marshal captured by the Soviets.
Stalin turned the offer down, saying, "I will not trade a Marshal for a Lieutenant.
Nadya Alliluyeva
Stalin's second wife
gave birth to 2 children, Svetlana Alliluyeva and Vasily Dzhugashvili
she dies November 9, 1932
Treaty between 8 communist States of Central and Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War. The founding treaty was established under the initiative of the Soviet Union and signed on 14 May 1955, in Warsaw. Georgy Malenkov is The soviet leader
East Germany
Soviet Union
Warsaw Pact
China falls to communism in October 1949. Chinese revolutionaries win their civil war; and declare themselves a communist country. China signs a treaty of alliance with The USSR. Many Western leaders feared the two would support further revolutions around the world.
Hungarian Revolution
Uprising against the soviet-installed Hungarian government.
Government fell and many pro-communists were executed
New government withdrew from Warsaw Pact.
After claiming to be willing to negotiate , the soviet Politburo changed its mind and crushed the new government.
Eisenhower's policy to use nuclear weapons as threat to the Russians in order to contain the growth of communism. He was willing to take the country to the brink of war in order to get the Russians to back down. This policy was also called MAD( Mutually Assured Destruction). If one side used their weapons, the other side would do the same.
Nikita Khrushchev
From 1958 to 1964. Khrushchev was responsible for the partial de-Stalinization of the Soviet Union
Khrushchev's ultimatum
In November 1958, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev issued an ultimatum giving the Western powers six months to agree to withdraw from Berlin and make it a free, demilitarized city. At the end of that period, Khrushchev declared, the Soviet Union would turn over to East Germany complete control of all lines of communication with West Berlin; the western powers then would have access to West Berlin only by permission of the East German government.

The United States, United Kingdom, and France replied to this ultimatum by firmly asserting their determination to remain in West Berlin and to maintain their legal right of free access to that city.
The government actively sought a means of halting the emigration of its population to the West. By the early summer of 1961, East German President Walter Ulbricht apparently had persuaded the Soviets that an immediate solution was necessary and that the only way to stop the exodus was to use force.

The Berlin Wall is Built.

Helsinki Accords
Sovereign equality, respect for the rights inherent in sovereignty
Refraining from the threat or use of force
Inviolability of frontiers
Territorial integrity of States
Peaceful settlement of disputes
Non-intervention in internal affairs
Respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief
Equal rights and self-determination of peoples
Co-operation among States
Fulfillment in good faith of obligations under international law
Treaty of Moscow
Treaty between USSR and West Germany (FRG) that had USSR recognize the FRG and the FRG recognized the German Democratic Republic.
Normalization of relations between the two Germanys.
Willy Brandt
Alexej Kosygin
Leonid Breshnev
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 was a spontaneous nationwide revolt against the government of the People's Republic of Hungary and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956. It was the first major threat to Soviet control since the USSR's forces drove out the Nazis at the end of World War II and occupied Eastern Europe.

Despite the failure of the uprising, it was highly influential, and came to play a role in the downfall of the Soviet Union decades later.
The Hungarian Revolt
The Prague Spring reforms were an attempt by Alexander Dubček to grant additional rights to the citizens of Czechoslovakia in an act of partial decentralization of the economy and democratization. The freedoms granted included a loosening of restrictions on the media, speech and travel. After national discussion of dividing the country into a federation of three republics, Bohemia, Moravia-Silesia and Slovakia, Dubček oversaw the decision to split into two, the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic. This was the only change that survived the end of Prague Spring.
The Prague Spring
The Prague Spring was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union . It began on 5 January 1968, when reformist Alexander Dubček was elected First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, and continued until 21 August when the Soviet Union and all members of the Warsaw Pact invaded the country to halt the reforms.
Mikhail Gorbachev
Perestroika- economic change, he allows a little capitalism to exist in the Soviet Union saying that the system has failed and needs to recover with capitalism.
11 March 1985 – 24 August 1991
Was the Cold war inevitable?
Who won the cold war?
Mass production of antibiotics to fight infections.
New drugs to combat arthritis, diabetes, cancer and heart diseases
groundbreaking advances in surgical techniques
Jonas Salk developed a vaccine preventing polio.
Zeitgeist: Anxiety based on the fear and uncertainty of the future
Age of Televion
In 1946 there 7000-8000 TVs, by 1957 there was 40 million
Rise of Elvis Presley
On 29 May 1990 he was elected the chairman of the Russian Supreme Soviet. On 12 June 1991 he was elected by popular vote to the newly created post of President of the Russian Soviet Federate Socialist Republic

Upon the resignation of Mikhail Gorbachev and the final dissolution of the Soviet Union on 25 December 1991, Yeltsin remained in office as the President of the Russian Federation
Boris Yeltsin
The fall of The Berlin Wall
Thank you
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