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AP Government

study guide for AP test
by

Sara Zellers

on 7 March 2013

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Transcript of AP Government

Constitutional Underpinnings Chapters 1 and 2! 4 Theories of Power Force use force to gain use force to stay Ex: Iraq Social Contract lose:
some rights Gain:
protection ex: United
States Divine Right believed ruler chosen by God ex:
China Evolution Theory Most natural
form of gov. Family ex: Native
Americans Early American Colonists came to: commerce opportunities religious freedoms Early Ideas About Government Magna Carta petition of rights Mayflower Compact early agreement to preserve
humanity on ship Leviathan Philosophy European thinking of Government Social Contract people agree to be governed Documents inspiring DOI Mayflower Compact Magna Carta Social Contract Religion Early Tradition Pilgrims wanted to create "city on a hill" Puritanical views punished strictly Anne Hutchinson created beacon for religious tolerance Tolerance William Penn establish area (Delaware) called "Holy Expirament" attract persecuted Europeans succesful becaus religious and ethnic diversity Becoming Americans need for government Virginia House of Burgesses - first formal meeting self government through town meetings Types of Government Direct Democracy everyone votes for everything majority rules Indirect Democracy vote for representatives vote on their behalf Republic rooted in consent of governed people represented by educated
and wealthiest Monarchy power vested in hereditary kings and queens govern all by what they want Totalitarianism leaders rule to benefit themselves use force to stay in power Oligarchy few people rule in their own interest determine by wealth, education, or military American Rights Liberty freedom from government interference in life allowed to engage in activities without
government involvement Equality all citizens are the same in the eyes of the government Types of Rulings Popular Consent governments must draw powers from
consent of the governed Majority Rule officials elected and policies made into
law only if majority of citizens support it Popular Sovereignty ultimate authority in society is people basis is natural law - doctrine that society is
based on ethical principles Individualism all individuals deemed as rational, fair,
and endowed with "unalienable rights" Religious
Freedoms allows americans to
have whatever belief
they want Functions of American Governement Ensure Domestic Tranquility keeps peace in America through
just laws Provide for the
Common Defense allows government to protect people
oversees Establish Justice keeps goernment safe and fair Promote the General
Welfare supports organizations that help people Secure the Blessings
of Liberty allows the United States to keep the freedoms mentioned in the BOR Demographics Race age Religion family
size political
ideaology Problems people are mixed levels of ideologists Roots of the
American Nation Magna Carta (1215) Petition of Right (1628) English Bill of Rights (1689) French and Indian War (1756) Trade and Taxation mercantilism- theory designed to increase nations's wealth through a commercial industry and a balanced trade system need to pay for expenses- Sugar and Stamp Acts Steps Toward Independence Stamp Act Congress meeting of 9 of 13 colonies to draft a document to send to kind about how their rights had been violated Committees of
Correspondence organizations in each colony to help colonists abreast of developements with the British helped with public opinion of British Continental Congresses First in Philadelphia September 5- October 26 1774 56 delegates Georgia not present adopt resolution to oppose Coercive Acts Second Philadelphia May 10, 1775 decide to raise an army George Washington is commander in chief came from : Sweden England Finland Germany Declaration of Independence all men are created with "unalieable rights"- life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness king wouldn't pass legislation even though they tried to peacefully negotiate the country will become free fom the king and evntually become a seperate nation Articles of Confederation compact of the thirteen original colonies that created a loose league of friendship with a central government whose powers are derived from the states Problems Each state only has one vote in Congress Troops are based on population Canada would would be one state if it decided to join the United States Shay's Rebellion farmers upset because they loose farms because of high taxes Compromises Virginia and Ney Jersey Plan Virginia Plan strong national gov mult. jud. bicameral New Jersey Plan rep on statehood jud. by exec. strong States Similarities 3 branches of gov congress reatins power from AOC executive chosen bycongress Great Compromise took ideas from both the NJ and VA plans Three - Fifths Compromise Each AfricanAmerican is counted as 3/5 of a person for population counting Federalism system of gvernment where the national and state governments share power Separation of Powers Way of dviding power of the government among legeslatie, excutive, and judicial branches, each seperate, equal and defined by the constitution Checks and Balances constitutionally mandated Structure that gives each of the three branches of government some degree of oversight and control over the actions of others Full Faith and
Credit CLause mandates that states follow the laws and judicial proceedings of other states Federalist Papers 85 essys written by Alexander Hamilton, James MAdison, and John Jay to ratify the Constitution Amending the Constituition Ratify 1790 states fought against it small states favor first North Carolina - last state to agree Informal federal courts could nullify acts that were unconstitutional can change due to social changes Formal had to be slow so that it was not impulsvely amended 2 stages - proposal and ratifiation Constitution Amendments 1. freedoms
2. right to bear arms
3. don have to house soldier
4. need a warrant
5. double jeopardy, self incrimination
6. fair trial
7. jury trial
8. cruel and unusual punishment
9. unenumerated rights
10. states
11. states suing other states
12. pres and vp electoral college
13. abolished slavery 14. selective incorporation
15.race not considered in voting
16. federal taxes
17. senators chosen by people
18. bans alcohol
19. women vote
20. lame duck
21. prohibition repealed
22. pres term- 10 yrs
23. 3 electors for DC
24. no poll tax
25. pres succesion
26. 18 to vote
27. congressional pay Articles 1. Congress
2. President
3. Judiciary
4. States Rights
5. Changing the Constituition
6. Concerns of the United States
7. Ratification Federalism Chapter 3 Where gov. authority comes from Federal national and state derive authority from people Unitary local and regional governments derive authourity from national gov. Confederate national gov. gets authority from states National Powers under Constituion Enumerated government *international commerce *coin money * establish post office *provide for army *declare and conduct war *make laws for America Concurrent State &
Government *tax *borrow money *charter banks *establish courts Reserved States *set election times *ratify amendments *deal with public safety *regulate commerce within state Constitutional Clauses Supremacy the Constitution is the supreme "Law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby" Full Faith & Credit ensures Judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforced in all other states Extradition requires states to return criminals to states where they have been convicted or re to stand trial Privileges & Immunities gaurantees that citizens in one state are affrorded the same rights as citizens in all other states Laws Bill of
Attainder declares and act illegal without judicial trial Ex Post
Facto act is crime even if the law was made ater the time of crime Interstate
Compacts contracts between states that carry out the force of law Court Cases McCulloch v. Maryland denied the right of a state to tax the federal bank using the Supremacy clause Gibbons v. Ogden upheld power to regulate commerce because the people were fighting over the Hudson River Barron v. Baltimore due process clause of 5th amendment didnt apply to states Dred Scott v. Sandford Congress doesn'thave powe to bar slavery in the erritories. it strengtheed power of the states Amendments 10th states that the powers not given to the national government are given to the states 16th Congress can enact a national income tax 17th senators directly elected by people, not legislatures Nullification state has the right to declare a federal law void Government Money Categorical
Grant money given to states for a specific purpose Block
Grant grant given with only general spending guidelines Unfunded
Mandates laws that are required but not funded by the government Federalism Types Dual Federalism *seperate but equal national and state governments *aka- layer cake federalism *believed that national government only had power in constitution, everything else is given to states *favour tenth amendment Cooperative *national, state, and local governments are intertwined and share responsibilities *aka - marble cake federalism *began with New Deal New Federalism *federal state relationship in whch administrative powers would be returned to state governments *started by Reagan *use of broad block grants Progressive *national govenments give state official significant leeway on setting policy in areas traditionally reserved for states *ex. environmental protection, transportation *Bush used some ideas * used by Obama Devolution Revolution *led by Newt Gingrich *started by Republicans *introduce "Contract with America" pledging to scale back the federal government Judicial Federalism *new deal -> 1980s *expand national government at states' expense Congress Bicameral
system from experience
like British system from Great compromise
Virginia Plan promote federalism separates power House v. Senate House Senate 435 members
2 year term
25 yrs old
7 for citizen
elected by eligible voters
initiates revenue bills
brings impeachment up
size based on population
if pop. changes, so does political
from single member districts
gerrymandering- help skew pol. powers 100 members
6 year term
30 years old
9 year citizen
chose by elected voters
ratifies treaties
passes impeachment
confirms jud. apointments
confirms exec. appointments
2 members from each state Limits on
Gerrymandering districts favor les populated areas
one person one vote policy
equally populated districts
must be compact
cannot dilute minority voting
cannot be based on race Incumbency alreading holding an office
win Congressional elections Advantages money
visibility
constituent service
franking oriveleges
gerrymandering How Congress is Organized Political Parties majority party- most votes
minority party- 2nd most votes House formal, strict rules
speaker of the house (maj leader)
minority leaders
whips Senate less formal, less strict
vp- president of senate
only vote to break tie
pres pro tempore (in place of vp)
maj leader- true leader
minority leader Committee Sytem standing- permanent bodies select- special panels
joint- members of both houses
conference- temp to resolve disputes of H and S House Rules Committee controlled by speaker
sets guidelines for floor debate
closed- no amendmnts
open- allows amendments House Committee
on Ways and Means juridiction on tax, tarriffs, and other revenue
members cannot serve on other committees Committee Chairs
& seniority System call meetings, hire, recommend
chairs are elected positions
seniority is norm for selecting Legislative Process introduction
2.5 % are made into law creating bills
don't have to be a member of Congress to write Committee Action
go through committes in both houses Floor Action
debated in house for allotted time
Senate allows to speak for as long as want Conference action
if agreed- conf com. works out diff.
returned to each chamber Oversight congressional review of activity checks on exec. branch because Senate approves pres. appointments Foreign Policy Congress has powr to declare war
Senate ratifys treaties War Powers Act- limit presidential power inwr by making congress agree to his decisons
pres notfy withing 48 hours of deploying troops
must bring bac from 60- 90 days unless cpngress further agrees Presidency
Qualifications and
Terms of Office ~U.S natural born citizen
~35 years old
~resident for 14 consec. years
~only serve for 2 consec terms
~ 10 years if took office for first 2 years as VP Powers &
Priveleges Executive enforces provisions of Fed. law and administers Bureaucracy Appointment who? ~cabinet
~aides
~head of ind. agencies
~ambassadors
~diplomats
~fed. judges
~marshalls
~attorneys ~must be confirmed by Senate
~senatorial courtesy Removal can dismiss apointed officials
except judges or commisioners
of independent regulatory
agencies Presidential Peeps Cabinet & Kitchen 14 exec department heads and attorney general
loyalty to president and departments
close ties with interest groups
congress competes with Pres. for Cabinet EOP helps oversee executive branch OMB assist president in prepaing the federal budget NSC helps with national security and foreign policy CEA prepares the annual Economic Report of the presodent White House Staff chief of staff & press secretary
select and supervise ket staff
manage people and info. in Oval Ofice
must be loyal to president
president can appoint or dismiss wo/ approval
provide policy options and analysis Legislation legislative power give state of Union address
can bring issues to COngress
veto legislation
initiates much of major legislation Veto Power if president vetos a bill Congress can pass it with a 2/3 ruling
can wait 10 days where the bill may die. Line item veto have to fully accept or reject a bill; cannot only pass certain portions Congress cooperative bipartisan relationship
assign legisltive liaisons to obbyists
work with maj. and min. leaders
uses media to focus on certain issues
pusuade legslators with high ratings Divided Gov president and Ongress controlled by differnt parties, which slows legislation, destroys public trust, and heightens partisanship Roles Constitution deploy troops
appoint ambasadors
negotiate treaties
recognize nations
recieves ambassadors Chief Diplomat foreign affairs
termiate relations with other countries
negotiate traties
executive agreements- pacts Commander in Chief cannot declare war
must notify congress withing 48 hrs
of deploying trops
bring home troops 60- 90 days of
deployment unless further
approved president &
citizens support key to success approval public pleased only if the president is improving the nation, and they dont if re shown negatively media president gets more media coverage because he is stronger as an individual than any one member of Congress Bureaucracy Key Features hierarchal authority
job specialization
formal rules Spoils System rich white males
federal posts given to party loyalists Pendleton Act establih principles of federal emplymenton basis of open, competitie exams; create Civil Service Commission Office of Personal Management administer civil service law & reulation; hires for most agencies Fed & State Employees 3% of nations jobs, constant number for fed but state and local jobs steadily increase due to block grants and federal mandates Cabinet Departments 15 departmnts headed by secretary or attorney general chosen by pres, and approved by senate, loyal trongly to department Independent Regulatory Agency regulate key sectors of the economy
ICC, SEC,FRB, NLRB
led by smal commissions Government Corporation provide a service that could be provided by a private setor, ex: AMTRAK, US Postal Serive Independent Executive Agency non cabinet departments
NASA, NSF, EPA, GSA Regulation use of government authority to control practices in private sectors Appointment pres. appoints senior agency, has to be apporve by Senate Executive Orders directive, order, or regulation made b the pres. that has force of law Economic Power pres uses OMB to cut/ add agency budget, approved by Congress Divided Authority pres and Congress advise fed bureaucracy which create checks and blances Oversight Congress ability to set aside funds, hold hearings, recognize agency, or set new guidelines Iron Triangle Issue Networks alliance between administrative agency, interest group, and congressional committee; owerful and persuasive policy experts media pundits, congressional staffs, and interest groups who debate issues Judiciary Adversarial plaintiff brings a charge
defendent is being charged Passive restrained by constitution
depeds on others to take the initiative
not hypothetical Jurisdiction court's auhority to hear a case original- case is first heard here
apellate- cases are brought from lower court
exclusive- cases can only be heard in certain couts
concurent- cases heard in federal or state court District Courts 94 with 700 judges
80% of federal case load
most end in plea bargain Court of Appeals apellate courts who reviw dstricc cour decisions
rule on federal regulatory agencies
do not hold trials Specialized Courts supreme court
court of last resort
estbalish precedent Marbury v. Madison established judicial review
power to declare federal legislation invalid if it violates the Constitution Nomination impressive crudentials, prior gov. expierience
share ideaologies and policy preferencs with the president
race, ethnicity, and gender Confirmation thorough background check
interest group reviews
senate hearings and recommendation
vetted Original Jurisdiction two or more states
US and state gov.
US and foreign ambassadrs/ dplomats Writ of Certiori enables Supreme Court to control caseload
must involve serious constitutional issue or interpretation of federal statute, action, or treaty Rule of 4 for a case to beheard at least 4 of 9 must agree to hear the case Solicitor General 4th ranking memeber in dept. of justice
handles all appeals on behalf of the US gov in the Supreme court
influences on which cases to hear Filing Briefs detailed rittenarguement argueing side of case
inclue facts, legal principles, precedents Amicus Curae friend of the court
mostly for controversial issues Oral Arguments open to public
attorneys are given 30 minutes topresent case Discussion and Voting justices discuss case in closed meeting on friday
chief justice presides over meeting Types of Opinions majority- law of land
concurring- supports majority but stresses different reason
minority/ dissenting- disagrees with minority, no legal standings Stare Decisis let the decision stand
cases based on precendent Judicial Restraint use precedent and framers' orginal intent to decide cases
Supreme court should defer to eleced institutions of gov. Public Opinion know about nomination
congress and state leg. can ammend const.
congress can change jurisdiction
change number of justices
justices can be impeached Constructionism strict- follow constitution
loose- don't follow constitution Writ of Habeas Corpus have to be brought before judge to hear case
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