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By: Abigail Snyder and Isabela Oguz

Isabela Oz

on 14 September 2012

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Transcript of Tundra

By Abigail and Isabela The Tundra Cycling of Major Nutrients All of the major nutrients of life, excluding phosphorus, cycle through the ecosystem, traveling from the atmosphere to producers, to consumers, and back into the atmosphere. The Elements Carbon
Sulfur The Carbon Cycle focuses on the distribution and cycling of carbon among the land, ocean, and through the atmosphere and ecosystems as they are affected by humans. Carbon Cycle Hydrogen Cycle Due to lack of vegetation, there are many N-fixing Bacteria in order for the microbial community to meet nitrogen needs in an already nutrient poor environment. Nitrogen Cycle Plants mark the beginning of the oxygen cycle. Plants are able to use the energy of sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen in a process called photosynthesis. Oxygen Cycle Hydrogen is a main component of water. It cycles through with water's three states. The Tundra's precipitation is primarily snow and ice, and as with most of the biogeochemical cycles in this region, this cycle significantly slowed by lack of heat required for evaporation. Not only is Phosphorus essential to healthy bones and teeth, but it also makes up the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA. Phosphorus Cycle Plants have adapted to the Arctic tundra by developing the ability to carry out photosynthesis in extremely cold temperatures.
Plants usually grow low to the ground so they will not freeze.
Many plants are dark in color, which helps them lock in solar heat.
Plants also grow in "clumps" to protect one another froze freezing wind. Plant Adaptations Animals that live in the tundra have special adaptations that allow them to survive the
extreme temperatures and conditions that are present in their homes. A good example
of an animal with special adaptations is the Arctic Fox. The Arctic Fox has short ears
and a short, round body with a thick coat to minimize the amount of skin exposed to
the frigid air. Animal Adaptations An "S' curve (on a population chart) reaches its carrying capacity and levels out, while a "J" curve hits its carrying capacity and just continues causing a population explosion and competition for resources. Population Trends The J-curve is basically a J shaped diagram or graph
that portrays an initial fall and then a rise more than
the starting point. The S-Curve is basically the logistic curve. The diagram or graph is portrayed as an initial stage of growth which is exponential. As saturation begins, the growth slows and the at maturity level, the growth stops. Tundra animals are able
to accumulate thick body
fat within the very short
growing season. This insulator
doubles as an energy source. Tundra
animals mature slowly, postponing reproduction until conditions are favorable. Competition- ecological relationship in which two organisms attempt to obtain the same resource. Relationship among Organisms Even though the Tundra remains uninhabited by humans for the most part, we are still playing a vital role in the biome--and a deadly on as well. Human Involvement Commensalism- ecological relationship in which one species receives a benefit but the other species is not affected one way or another. Mutualism-ecological relationship between two species in which each species gets a benefit from the interaction. r Predation-process by which one organism hunts and kills another organism for food. Parasitism- ecological relationship in which one organism benefits by harming another organism. The melting permafrost is a direct result of global warming, caused by humans.
Oil spills are threatening the environment in which the animals of the Tundra or living.
Invasive species brought by boats or immigrating humans are invading pushing aside native species of plants and animals. Yellow Tundra flower creating oxygen through photosynthesis What is the Tundra? Parasitism in the Tundra?
An example of parsitism in tundra is tape worm in caribou. The tape worm sucks in the nutrients from the caribou. Then, the caribou dies. Relationship among Organisms continued... Mutualism in the Tundra? An example of Commensalism is a hydroid living on a shell with a hermit crab is carried by the crab to sites to eat, Commensalism in the Tundra? Competition in the Tundra? One example of competition in the artic is between polar bears and the artic wolf. both compete against each other for same source of food, which tend to be other animals Phosphates move quickly from plants to animals, but due to the cold climate of the Tundra biome, the decomposition of organic materials, such as the bodies of dead organisms, is extremely sluggish, further dragging out the already slow phosphorus cycle. Predation in the Tundra?
A polar bear hunts for a seal and then eats the seal. THE END An example of mutualism in the tudra is fungi living on a lichen. The algae is able to photosnythesize while the lichen is able to retain moisture and obtain minerals from for the algae. Nitrogen, the most abundant element in our atmosphere, is unusable until fixed by plants or bacteria. If these plants are consumed by animals, the nitrogen will be transferred to that organism. After its death, the nitrogen will be transferred back to the earth where it will be denitrified by bacteria along with any remaining unused nitrogen. It is then returned to the atmosphere.
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