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UV EXPOSURE

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Casey GUillaume

on 20 December 2013

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Transcript of UV EXPOSURE

MPH 520 - Environmental Health
Dr. Rebecca Toland
Concordia University, Nebraska
Casey Guillaume
UV EXPOSURE
Exposure
Health Effects
Protection
Easy options for protection from UV radiation:

Seek shade, especially during midday hours (10 AM - 2 PM)
Wear clothing to protect exposed skin
Wear a hat with a wide brim to shade the face, head, ears, and neck
Wear sunglasses that block close to 100% of both UVA and UVB rays
Use sunscreen with sun protective factor (SPF) 30 or higher, and both UVA and UVB protection
Put on sunscreen and lip balm everyday
Avoid indoor tanning
(CDC, 2013):
Finding skin cancer:
Perform skin self-exams (see video)
Visit dermatologist annually
Programs
References
American Society for Dermatologic Surgery. (2013). Skin cancer information. Retrieved from http://www.asds.net/SkinCancerInformation.aspx
American Society for Dermatologic Surgery. (2013). Skin cancer information. [Video] Retrieved from
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Basic information about skin cancer. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/skin/basic_info/
Environmental Protection Agency. (2013). Annual rate of new melanoma diagnoses, 2003-2007: all races, both sexes, all ages, age-adjusted rates. Retrieved from http://www2.epa.gov/sunwise/skin-cancer-facts-your-state
Environmental Protection Agency. (2013). Health effects of UV radiation. Retrieved from http://www2.epa.gov/sunwise/health-effects-uv-radiation
Environmental Protection Agency. (2013). Health and environmental effects of ozone layer depletion. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/ozone/science/effects/index.html
Environmental Protection Agency. (2013). Learn about SunWise. Retrieved from http://www2.epa.gov/sunwise/learn-about-sunwise
Environmental Protection Agency. (2013). Skin cancer facts for your state. Retrieved from http://www2.epa.gov/sunwise/skin-cancer-facts-your-state
Environmental Protection Agency. (2013). UV radiation. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/sunwise/doc/uvradiation.html
Everyday Mysteries. (2010). Why does ultraviolet light cause color to fade? Library of Congress Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/rr/scitech/mysteries/colors.html
Eyes and Sun. (n.d.). Why protect your eyes outdoors? Retrieved from http://www.eyes-and-sun.com/en/all-about-protection/why-protect-your-eyes-outdoors/
Fox, J., Narayanan, D., Saladi, R. (2010). Review: Ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer. International Journal of Dermatology, 49: 978-986.
Howcast. (2008). How to check yourself for skin cancer. [Video] Retrieved from
Maxwell, N. I. (2014). Understanding Environmental Health: How We Live in the World. (2nd Ed.) Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2013). UV radiation. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/uvradiation/
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2013). Ultraviolet (UV) radiation - a silent hazard. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved from http://www.noaawatch.gov/themes/uv.php
World Health Organization. (2013). INTERSUN programme. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/uv/intersunprogramme/en/
World Health Organization. (2013). UV index. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/uv/intersunprogramme/activities/uv_index/en/
World Health Organization. (2013). UV radiation: Is there a connection between ozone depletion and UV radiation? Retrieved from http://www.who.int/uv/faq/whatisuv/en/index1.html
World Health Organization. (2013). UV radiation: What is the difference between UVA, UVB, UVC? Retrieved from http://www.who.int/uv/faq/whatisuv/en/index2.html
Ultraviolet Basics
Sunlight is made up of infrared radiation, visible light, and ultraviolet radiation
Ultraviolet rays are an Invisible form of radiation
THREE TYPES OF UV RADIATION
UV-C
Ionizing
Contains enough energy to knock out an electron, creating an ion
Absorbed by the ozone
Maxwell, 2014
UV-B
Non-ionizing
Not enough energy to knock out electron, but causes biological damage
Most rays absorbed by the ozone
Associated with skin cancer, penetrates the top layers of skin
Maxwell, 2014
UV-A
Non-ionizing
Most abundant solar radiation
Not filtered significantly by the ozone
Penetrates deeply into the skin
NIOSH, 2014
Ozone Depletion
Ozone absorbs UV radiation, filters light and protects humans from harmful rays
Thinning ozone leads to an increase of solar UV-B radiation
Ozone depletion is caused by human-made chemicals, bromine and chlorine compounds
Chemicals are being phased out due to international agreements, such as the Montreal Protocol (WHO, 2013)
While there is evidence of ozone depletion, the true effect of increased UV-B radiation on human health is unknown because effects could be due to behavior
EPA, 2013
Factors effecting the level
of UV radiation exposure:
Angles at which the sun's rays hit the earth effects the intensity of the UV radiation

Time of day
4 hours around noon have greatest intensity
Sunlight has least distance to travel, most direct path
Early morning and late afternoon, rays are less intense
Rays hit earth at an angle

Time of year
Intensity is most intense during summer
Angle changes throughout the seasons
Latitude
More intense at equator
Ozone naturally thinner, less distance to travel

Altitude
Higher altitudes, increased intensity
With every 1000 m in altitude, UV levels increase by approximately 10 per cent (WHO, 2013)

Weather conditions
Cloud reduces radiation exposure, but not completely

Reflection
Water, sand, pavement, and snow reflect much of what radiation hits
Fresh snow is a particularly good reflector and almost doubles a person's UV exposure (WHO, 2013)
EPA and CDC created state-specific skin cancer fact sheets information about skin cancer incidence, mortality, and prevention:

http://www2.epa.gov/sunwise/skin-cancer-facts-your-state

EPA, 2013
UV Index
What are exposure levels
like in your state?
UV Index is a measure of the UV radiation levels (NOAA, 2013)

The values of the index range from 0 -11+
The higher the UV index, the greater the potential for damage to the skin and eye, and the less time it takes for harm to occur (WHO, 2013)

Developed by WHO, the United Nations Environment Programme, and the World Meteorological Organization (WHO, 2013)
WHO, 2013
EPA, 2013
Risk Factors of Skin Cancer:

Risk factors vary for different types of skin cancer, but some general risk factors are having—

Lighter skin color
Family or personal history of skin cancer
Exposure to the sun through work and play
History of sunburns, especially before 18 years old
A history of indoor tanning
Skin that burns, freckles, reddens easily, or becomes painful in the sun
Blue or green eyes
Blonde or red hair
Certain types and a large number of moles
CDC, 2013

Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States
1 in 5 Americans will develop skin cancer (EPA, 2013)

Divided into:
Melanoma
One of the deadliest forms of skin cancer because it can spread rapidly inside the body (ASDS, 2013)
Common cancers among adolescents and young adults ages 15-29
Non-melanoma
"It is estimated that 2–3 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancers occur worldwide each year." (Fox, 2010)
Includes basal and squamous cell carcinomas, (BCC and SCC respectively)
BCC rarely metastasizes to other organs, but still causes morbidity and burden on healthcare systems
SCC can develop into large masses, and unlike basal cell carcinoma, it can spread to other parts of the body (EPA, 2013)
Basal cell carcinoma and SCC are usually found in sun exposed areas, especially the head and neck regions (Fox, 2010)

Here is a video about the types of skin cancer from the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery (2013)
Premature aging
Over time and with chronic exposure the skin becomes thick, wrinkled, and leathery
Can be avoided with proper sun care

Other skin damage
Actinic keratoses
Skin growths that occur on body areas exposed to the sun
Face, hands, forearms, and the “V” of the neck are especially susceptible
Premalignant, risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma
Look for raised, reddish, rough-textured growths
EPA, 2013
Cataracts
Form of eye damage in which a loss of transparency in the lens of the eye clouds vision
Can lead to blindness if left untreated

Other Eye Damage
Pterygium
Tissue growth that can block vision
Skin cancer around the eyes
Degeneration of the macula
Part of the retina where visual perception is most acute
EPA, 2013
Immune Suppression
"Overexposure to UV radiation may suppress proper functioning of the body’s immune system and the skin’s natural defenses" (EPA, 2013)
SunWise Program
A health and environmental education program that teaches children and their caregivers how to protect themselves from overexposure to the sun
EPA, 2013
Participants receive FREE materials that facilitate cross-curricular learning about sun safety, UV radiation, and ozone science
Develops sun-safe behaviors in schools and communities
EPA, 2013
The National Council on Skin Cancer Prevention designated the Friday before Memorial Day as Don’t Fry Day. The Council’s goal is to encourage sun safety awareness by reminding everyone to protect their skin while enjoying the outdoors on Don’t Fry Day and every day.
EPA, 2013
INTERSUN Programme

At a United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 they decided that there should be activities on the effects of UV radiation.

Goals:
To provide information, practical advice and sound scientific predictions on the health impact and environmental effects of UV exposure
Encourage countries to take action to reduce UV-induced health risks
Provide guidance to national authorities and other agencies about effective sun awareness programmes
WHO, 2013
There are a number of programs dedicated to educating the public
on sun safety. They often provide materials for schools and communities.
Below are two programs, one is global and the other is based in the US.
Full transcript