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Chapter 5: Principals & Practices of Infection Control

Understanding the basics of cleaning and disinfecting and following state rules that will ensure you have a long ans successful career in the field of cosmetology.

Diane Shoffstall

on 18 October 2018

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Transcript of Chapter 5: Principals & Practices of Infection Control

1. Understand state laws and rules.
2. List the types and classifications of bacteria.
3. List types of disinfectants and how they are used.
4. Define hepatitis and HIV, and explain how they are transmitted.
5. Describe how to safely clean and disinifect salon tools and equipment.
6. Explain the differences btetween cleaning, disinfection and sterilization.
7. Discuss Universal Precautions and your responsibilities as a salon Proffessional.
Method 1
Disinfecting - appropriate EPA disinfectant
C. Disinfection
1. Follow directions
D. Sterilization
1. Steam autoclave
2. Dry heat
E.Choosing a Disinfectant
1. Correct efficacy
2. Hospital-level disinfectant
F. Proper use of Disinfectants
1. Use on precleaned, nonporous surfaces.
2. Dilute according to directions.
3. Contact time per directions.
4. Spray on contact time per directions.
5. Spray can't be used if comlete immersion is called for.
6. Uuse only as directed.
7. EPA-registered disinfectant in pedicure spa.
IV.Types of Disinfectants
A. Quats
1. Nontoxic, oderless, fast-acting.

2. 2. Most disinfect in 10 mins.
3. Long-term exposure may damage fine steel.
4. Complete immersion.
B. Phenolics
1. A caustic poisin.
2. Can damage rubber and plastic.
3. Avoid skin contact.
4. Very High PH cause damage to skin, eyes
5. Metals to rust/never pedicure equipment
C. Alcohol
1. Methyl alcohol
2. Ethyl alcohol
3. Isopropyl alcoho
4. Concentration 70%
5. before EPA
D. Bleach
E. Fumigants
1. Must be kept in air tight container.
2. Vapors are poisonous.
3. Incorrect use violates federal law.
4. Can aggravate lung problems.
F. Disinfectant Safety
1. Wear gloves and safety glasses.
2. Add disinfectsant to water.
3. Use tongs, gloves, or draining basket.
4. Keep away from children.
5. Don't pour quats, phenols, etc. over hands.
6. Carefully weigh and measure products.
7. Never place in unmarked container.
8. Always follow manufacterer's direction.
9. Avoid over exposure.
G. Disinfect or Dispose
1. Multi-use
2. Single-use
3. Porous
V. Disinfection Procedures
Principals of infection
One celled miccrorganisms with both plant and animal characteristics
Types of bacteria
1. Non-patogenic
2. Pathogenic
Non-pathogenic - Completely harmless;
do not cause disease.
Pathogenic - Harmful bacteria that may cause disease
or infection when they invade the body.
Classifications of Bacteria
1. Cocci
2. Bacilla
3. Spirilli
Bacilli - short rod shaped; most common
bacteria, produce disease such as
tetnus, tuberculosis, and diptheria
Spirilla - spiral or corkskrew shaped;
subdivided into subgroups, such as
trepnema papillida, causes sypilis or
Borrelia which causes Lyme disease.
Cocci - round shaped bacteria, appear singly
or in the following groups
Staphylococci- Pus forming bacteria, grow in clusters
(grapes) cause abscesses, pustules,
and boils
Streptococci- Pus forming bacteria arranged in curved lines
(string of beads); cause infection such as strep
throat and blood poisining.
Diplicocci- Spherical bacteria that grow in pairs cause disease
such as pneumonia
Bacterial growth and reproduction
Active Stage -
Bacteria thrive in a warm, moist, dark, and dirty
environment. It only takes about 20 to 60 minutes for bacteria to reach full growth. They then divide into two new cells through a method called binary fission, and the new cells are called daughter cells.
Inactive Bacteria
such as anthrax and tetanus bacilli form
spherical spores with tough outer coverings which
are resistant to adverse conditions. This allows the
dormant bacteria to withstand long periods without
food. The spores can be blown about and can
come to rest on various surfaces within the salon.
When favorable conditions are restored, the spores
become active or vegetative and begin to grow and
reproduce once again. Therefore, even bacteria in
the inactive stage can ultimately be a threat to the
spread of disease or infection in the salon.
Bacterial infections; Occurs when body tissues are invaded by diseaese causeing or pathgenic bacteria
Contagious; When a disease spreads from one person to another
Bloodborne pathogens
Virus: Microorganism capable of infecting
almost all plants and animals including

Virus cause: common cold, gastrointestinal infections,
chicken pox, smallpox, rabies, Hiv, hepatitus

Hepatitis: is a bloodborne virus that causes disease and can damage the

HIV/AIDS- (Human Immideficiency Virus) AIDS ( Aquired ImmuneDeficiency Syndrome)
HIV virus that causes AIDS, which is a disease that breaks down the body's immune system.
HIV is spread from person to person through the blood and through other bodily fluids.

Bloodborne pathogens - disease- causing microorganisms that are carried
in the body by blood or bodily fluids, such as hepatitis and HIV.

Parasites: Plant or animal organisms that live in, or on, another
living organism and draw nourishment from the organism.
They must have a host to survive.

Fungi - Microscopic plant parasites that include molds, mildew, and yeast. They can Produce contagious diseases such as ringworm.
Head lice- type of parasite responsible for
contagious diseases and conditions.

Pediculosis capitis is a condition
cause by head lice

Scabies - Caused by the itch mite,
which burrows under the skin.
iMMUNITY - The ability for the body to destroy and resist infection
Natural Immunity - Partly inherited and partly developed
through healthy living

Aquired immunity- immunity that the body develops after
overcoming disease or through vaccinations

Regulation: State and federal agencies that regulate the practice of cosmetology.
Federal agencies: set guidelines for the manufacturing, sale, and use of equipment and chemical ingredients;
State agencies: Regulate licensing, enforcement, & conduct whenworking in a salon.

Federal Agencies:
OSHA - Regulate and enforce safety and health standards to protect employees in the workplace
Material Safety Data Sheets: Safety information about products compiled by manufacturers
Environmental Protection Agency: Licenses different types of disinfectants

Tuberculocidal: Disisnfectant that kills bacteria thyat causes tuberculosis which is more difficult to kills

State Regulatory Agencies: To protect the consumers' health , safety, and welfare while receiving services in the salon.

Laws: Written by legislature to determine what each license allows the holder to do
Rules: Written by the regulatory agency or board to determine how the law will be applied.
Disinfecting Non Electrical Implements
Disinfecting non-electrical tools and equipment
Information Sheet

1. Wear gloves, goggles, and/or safety glasses.
2. Mix disinfectant solution according to directions.
3. Pre-clean- Remove hair filings and other such loose matter by scrubbing with soap and water.
4. Rinse thoroughly and pat dry with a clean towel.
5. Use gloves or tongs to immerse implements for 10 minutes.
6. Remove implements with tog, basket or gloves.
7. Rinse thoroughly let air dry
8. Place in clean, closed, dry disinfected container in a sanitary manner between uses.

Bacteria consist of an outer cell wall that contains
liquid called protoplasm. Bacteria manufacture their
own food, give off waste products, grow, and reproduce.
The life cycle of bacteria consists of two stages.

Inflammation - A condition in which the body reacts to injury, irritation, & infection.

Signs: Redness, heat, pain, swelling.
Pus - Fluid created by infection
Contains, white blood cells,bacteria, & dead cells.
Local Infection - Infection Confined to a particular part of the body & appears as a lesion containing pus.

Staphylococci - Most common bacteria; Pick up on doorknobs, contertops, etc.; Can be highly resistant to antibiotics; Food poison and toxic shock syndrome, MRSA.
MRSA - Appears as a skin infection, such as pimples, rashes, and boils that can be difficult to cure.
Contagious Disease - Disease that spreads from one person to another.
In a salon can be spread possibly through
Chemical burns
or whenever the skin is broken
Cosmetologists are not allowed to cut the skin around the nail plate, a callous, or hardened tissue. This is considered a medical procedure by federal law.
Present in all body fluids
Unlike HIV, hepatitis can live on a surface outside the body for long periods of time.
hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C.

Human papilloma virus (HPV) - Planters warts
Infect the bottom of the foot
Small black dots
Highly contagious
Passed on to pedicure clients
Dirty implements
Client shows signs - refer to physician
Mildew - affects plants but does not cause human infections
Tinea barbae - Most frequently encountered fungus resulting from hair services. Also called Barbers itch.
Tinea capitis - Fungal infection of the scalp characterized by red spots at the opening of the hair follicle.
Tinea Pedis - Ringworm fungus of the foot
Hairstylist must clean and disinfect clipper blades to avoid spreading scalp and skin infections.
Spreading skin and scalp infections can be reduced by first removing all visible hair and debris from clippers.
Always refer to manufacturer's directions for proper cleaning and disinfecting.
Nail infections can be avoided with proper cleaning and disinfecting implements and surfaces.
Remember: fungus can spread from one hand and foot to another or too another client.

The abilty of the body to destroy and resist infection.
Natural Immunity - Partly inherited and partly developed through healthy living.

Acquired Immunity - Immunity that the body develops after overcoming a disease; innoculations such as flu vaccinations; exposure to natural allergens, such as pollen, cat dander, and bragweed.

The removal of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item's surface and the removal of visible debris or residue suc as dust, hair, and skin.
Method 2
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