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Cer I - Assignment #2
Transcript of Cer I - Assignment #2
When was the first clay
Pottery was invented during the
. It is thought that
baskets were used as containers
until someone left the basket too close to the
the basket and
is the oldest known method for the firing of pottery.
Kilns have since replaced pit firing as the most widespread method of firing pottery.
Unfired pots are nestled together in a pit in the ground and are then covered with combustible materials such as wood shavings, leaves, metal oxides, salts, sawdust and dried manure. The top of the pit may be protected with moist clay, shards, larger pieces of wood or metal baffles. The filled pit is then set on fire and carefully tended until most of the inner fuel has been consumed. At around 1,100°C (2,000°F) the maximum temperatures are moderate compared to other techniques used for pottery.
After cooling, pots are removed and cleaned to reveal patterns and colors left by ash and salt deposits.
Pots may then be waxed and buffed to create a smooth glossy finish.
Coiling is a method of creating pottery. It has been used to shape
clay into vessels for many of thousands of years. It ranges from Africa to Greece
and from China to New Mexico. They have used this method in a variety of ways.
Using the coiling technique, it is possible to build thicker or taller walled vessels, which may
not have been possible using earlier methods. The technique permits control of the walls as
they are built up and allows building on top of the walls to make the vessel look bigger and
bulge outward or narrow inward with less danger of collapsing. There are many ways to
build ceramic objects using the coiling technique. To do this, you take a pliable material
(usually clay) then roll it until it forms a long roll. Then, by placing one coil on top of
another, different shapes can be formed.
Native American Coil Pots
Coil Pot Demo
Coil Pots were relatively easy to make, coil pots developed in the
and were created
by several ancient cultures.
The earliest pots lacked decoration and were
created primarily for utilitarian purposes.
Coil pots were used for
cooking, storage and
for next year's planting.
The structure of the pot was often determined by
its function. For example, pots for gathering water
had indented bottoms so they could be carried on
the head while pots for storage were larger than
pots for cooking or gathering.
There are 20 Pueblo villages left in the Southwest;
there were at one time in history 200. Each of the
20 Pueblos is famous for art and/or crafts and each
has a specialty. Maria Martinez lived in the Pueblo of
San Ildefonso and she was famous for creating
black pottery. Maria respected the earth and its resources. She only took enough DIRT for
one pot at a time so that she did not waste it.
What is a Coil?
Let's Get Started
Early Pottery Techniques Used
When a Native American potter goes out to get clay for her or his craft, a great deal more than looking for a clay deposit is involved.
Many tribes have traditional clay gathering areas; a prayer and sometimes a small offering is made to thank Mother Earth for providing this material.
Traditionally, pueblo women, not men were potters, but this is changing.
There are a number of techniques for forming traditional pottery.
Pinch Pot Pottery, Coil Pottery and Slab Pottery
They used hand formed Slab pottery, paddles and anvil technique, or a carved two-piece mold.
A great many native peoples used the coil or coil and slab technique in which a pot is built up using short lengths of clay rolled into a rope and scored so that the coils will stay together when the pot is smoothed and fired.
1. Five "Detailed" Sketches
(all diff designs)
"APPROVED before beginning"
2. Coil Pots must measure 3" to 5" at the bottom
3. Coil Pots measure 6" tall
• unless design is approved otherwise
4. Coil Pots must include "at least" four different styles of coils containing repetition, movement and rhythm.
This is the technique of building ceramic forms by
out coils, or ropes, of clay and
them together with the
fingers and or tools.