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Modern Art History

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on 15 August 2018

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Transcript of Modern Art History

Non-recognizable subjects in art. Gestural Painters, Color-Field painters. Formalism. Clement Greenberg brings art criticism to the forefront. ART FOR ARTS' SAKE- MOVE AWAY FROM FIGURE AND LANDSCAPE- NON-
Abstract Expressionism
1945 – Present

Art reflects the American frame of mind; traditional styles with emerging abstraction.
Harlem Renaissance, American Regionalism, Social Realism 1920s - 1940s
Bauhaus - 1920s - 1930s
Ordinary objects are signed and called art. The word Dada in French means hobbyhorse, and- Use of collage and found objects- Chaotic/ non sensical composition/subject matter
Dada- 1916 -1922
Expressionism - 1890s – 1920s
Impressionism: 1870's- 1890's
The Impressionists sought to capture
the optical effects of light
to convey the passage of time
, changes in weather, and other
shifts in the atmosphere
in their canvases.
The Impressionists
loosened their brushwork and lightened their palettes
to include pure, intense colors. They
abandoned traditional linear perspective and avoided the clarity of form
that had previously served to distinguish the more important elements of a picture from the lesser ones.
Modern through Post-Modern Art History

Post Impressionism- 1880-1920's

Form is reduced and shattered; forms
become series of intersecting planes and
patterns. Multiple perspectives in one image.
Cubism - 1904-1939
The interest lies in the psychological depiction of man rather than anatomical representation. The merging of the conscious and subconscious mind.Representational and abstract works of art.
Surrealism -1924 - 1940s
A timeline of Aesthetic reactions and shifts
challenging the notion of 'What is Art?'

Big Ideas and visual characteristics
Claude Monet- Water Lillies
Mary Cassett

Van Gogh
Neo Impressionism
Aimed to establish a scientific basis for application of color through capturing all the colors that interacted to produce their appearance in form.
Based of Simultaneous Contrast Color Theory
George Seurat
Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grange Jatte (1884)
Detalle de La Parade (1889).
Road with Cypress and Star, May 1890,

Painter on the Road to Tarascon, August 1888
Edvard Munch

Fauvism- 1900-1908

'Wild Beasts'
'Color for color's sake'. The style can be traced back to Pointillism and Post-Impressionism, but it moved away from the harmony of the latter towards a bolder, more primitive form of expression.

Henri Matisse Andre Derain
Artists:Pablo Picasso Juan Gris Georges Braque
Marcel Duchamp
Fountain 1914
Marks the
beginning of Conceptualism
and the
introduction of the found object.
Expressed rejection of bourgeois capitalist ideology in artistic expression that appeared to
reject logic and embrace chaos and irrationality.
According to Hans Richter Dada was not art: it was
Dada represented the opposite of everything which art stood for. Where art was concerned with traditional aesthetics, Dada ignored aesthetics. If art was to appeal to sensibilities, Dada was intended to offend.
Hannah Hoch
Bicycle Wheel 1913
Aesthetic Philosophy/ BIG IDEAS:
The Bauhaus was not a formal group, but rather a school that was very influential in shaping Modern architecture, design, typography,
Some of the concepts of Cubism are used in architecture and art and influenced this prominent school of design.
Wassily Kandinsky
Paul Klee
Jacob Lawrence
Harlem Renaissance
"New Negro Movement", named after the 1925 anthology by Alain Locke. The Movement also included the new African-American cultural expressions across the urban areas in the Northeast and Midwest
Romare Bearden
American Regionalism
Social Realism
Grant Wood
Thomas Hart Benton
The artistic focus was from artists who shunned city life, and rapidly developing technological advances, to create scenes of rural life.
Dorothea Lange
Diego Rivera
Artists whose goal is to draw attention to the everyday conditions of the working classes and the poor, and who are critical of the social structures that maintain these conditions.
Amorphism- Bio morphism
Artists: Salvador Dali Rene Magritte Joan Miro
Dream scapes of subconscious mind
Action Painting
Color Field Painting
Homage to the Square
Jackson Pollock
Wilhem Dekooning
Mark Rothko
Joseph Albers
Focused on an active gestural style
Artists were concerned with reflection and mood
Hundreds of chromatic studies of interactions with nested squares. Palette knife and oils
Pop Art
Art and popular culture become
inextricably linked.
Artists: Andy Warhol Roy Lichtenstien Claes Oldenburg
Minimalism- Early 1960's to late 1960's
Conceptualism- Mid 1950's to Present
Plays and novels of Samuel Beckett, the films of Robert Bresson, the stories of Raymond Carver, and the automobile designs of Colin Chapman.
The concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns.
Emile Bernard
Following the popularity of the Abstract Expressionists, Pop's reintroduction of identifiable imagery (drawn from mass media and popular culture) was a major shift for the direction of modernism.
The concept that there is no hierarchy of culture and that art may borrow from any source has been one of the most influential characteristics of Pop art.
Minimalists created works that resembled factory-built commodities and upended traditional definitions of art whose meaning was tied to a narrative or to the artist.
Minimalists distanced themselves from the Abstract Expressionists by removing suggestions of biography or metaphors of any kind from their art.
Sol LeWitt:
"the most interesting characteristic of the cube is that it is relatively uninteresting."
Frank Stella
"What you see is what you see."
The articulation of an artistic idea suffices as a work of art -
It is important to understand Conceptual art in a succession of avant-garde movements (Cubism, Dada, Abstract Expressionism, Pop, etc.) that succeeded in self-consciously expanding the boundaries of art.
One and Three Chairs (1965)
Artist: Joseph Kosuth
"The art I call conceptual is such because it is based on an inquiry into the nature of art. Thus, it is...a thinking out of all the implications, of all aspects of the concept 'art.'"

The Physical Possibility of Death, in
the Mind of Someone Living
Dead shark in case formaldehyde
Performance Art-1910- Present

The foremost purpose of performance art has almost always been to challenge the conventions of traditional forms of visual art such as painting and sculpture. When these modes no longer seem to answer artists' needs
Performance art borrows styles and ideas from other forms of art, or sometimes from other forms of activity not associated with art, like ritual, or work-like tasks.
Chris Burden 'Shoot'
Two Undiscovered Amerindians Visit Buenos Aires (1992)
Artist: Coco Fusco and Guillermo Gomez-Pena
Graffiti Art/ Street Art 1980's/ present

It was named after the spray-can vandalism common in most cities and most associated with the New York subway system.

The purpose of graffiti art is self-expression and creativity, and can involve highly stylised letter forms drawn with markers, or cryptic and colourful spray paint murals on walls, buildings, and even freight trains.


Contemporary Controversial
Conceptual Art-

Banksy's commentary on
Damien Hirst's work:
Gustave Courbet 1854
Bonjour Monsieur Courbet

Auguste Rodin
Breton Women in a Green Pasture, Bernard, 1888.
Mont Sainte-Victoire and Château Noir
1904 - 1905
The Courtesan
(after Eisen) (1887)
Cafe Terrace At Night
inspired by a desire to abandon Impressionism's preoccupation with the fleeting moment, and instead to render what he regarded as the essential and unchanging in life.
Born: December 2, 1859 - Paris, France
Died: March 29, 1891 - Paris, France
Redefined pure color and form as means of communicating the artist's emotional state. In these regards, Fauvism proved to be an important precursor to Cubism and Expressionism as well as a touchstone for future modes of abstraction.
La Danse (1910)

Henri Matisse
"What I dream of is an art of balance, of purity and serenity, devoid of troubling or depressing subject-matter, an art which could be for every mental worker, for the businessman as well as the man of letters, for example, a soothing, calming influence on the mind, something like a good armchair which provides relaxation from physical fatigue."
Born: December 31, 1869 - Le Cateau-Cambresis, Picardy, France
Died: November 3, 1954 - Nice, France
Back, 1908–09, 1911–13, 1913–16, c. 1931
Series of relief sculpture that took 23 years total
Its example would later inform Abstract Expressionism, and its influence would be felt throughout the remainder of the century in German art. It was also a critical precursor to the Neo-Expressionist artists of the 1980s.
Art was now meant to come forth from within the artist, rather than from a depiction of the external visual world,
Character of the artist's feelings rather than an analysis of the composition is most important.
Distortion of form and the deployment of strong colors to convey a variety of anxieties and yearnings.
Hermits (1912)
Egon Schiele
Portrait of a Man (1919)
Erich Heckel
The Scream, 1893
Hans Tietze and Erica
Tietze-Conrat (1909)
Oscar Kokoschca
Edgar Degas
Edgar Degas
Think; Pair; Share
What artists have most influenced your
own work?

What artistic characteristics
did you experiment with that were new to you from this inspiration?
Compare and Contrast:

Post Impressionism

Neo Impressionism
What are the similarities and differences regarding, technique, subject matter, color, style, and function
Nick Cave Sound Suits
Damien Hirst
Donald Judd
"Three dimensions are real space. That gets rid of the problem of illusionism and of literal space... which is riddance of one of the salient and most objectionable relics of European art."
Chasing a chair through three different registers, Kosuth asks us to try to decipher the subliminal sentences in which we phrase our experience of art.
an American fabric sculptor, dancer, and performance artist. He is best known for his Soundsuits: wearable fabric sculptures that are bright, whimsical, and other-worldly. He also trained as a dancer with Alvin Ailey
Cave's first Soundsuit was made of twigs. Other typical materials include dyed human hair, sisal, plastic buttons, beads, sequins, and feathers. The finished pieces bear some resemblance to African ceremonial costumes and masks. His suits are presented for public viewing as static sculptures, but also through live performance, video, and photographs
Serrano has not ascribed overtly political content to Piss Christ and related artworks, on the contrary stressing their ambiguity. He has also said that while this work is not intended to denounce religion, it alludes to a perceived commercializing or cheapening of Christian icons in contemporary culture
Andre Serrano
'Piss Christ' Photograph of crucifix
emerged in a glass of
the artists' urine
Jean Michelle Basquiat
Keith Harring
Graffiti artists use public space
as a canvas to communicate their message
or make there mark- with or without permission from authorities
Realism is broadly considered the beginning of modern art. Literally, this is due to
its conviction that everyday life and the modern world were suitable subjects for art.

Philosophically, Realism embraced the progressive aims of modernism,
seeking new truths through the reexamination and overturning of traditional systems of values and beliefs.

concerned itself with how life was structured socially, economically, politically, and culturally
in the mid-nineteenth century.

This led to unflinching, sometimes "ugly" portrayals of life's unpleasant moments and the use of dark, earthy palettes that
confronted high art's ultimate ideals of beauty.

Gustave Courbet
The Stone Breakers (1849-50)
Jean-Francois Millet
The Gleaners (1857)
Berthe Morisot
In a Park (1874)
Lydia Reading the Morning Paper (No. 1) (1878-79)
Little Dancer of Fourteen Years (1881)
Symbolic and highly personal meanings
were particularly important to Post-Impressionists.
Rejecting interest in depicting the observed world
, they instead looked to their memories and emotions in order to connect with the viewer on a deeper level.
The movement ushered in an era during which
transcended its traditional role as a window onto the world and instead
became a window into the artist's mind and soul.

Rococo works were celebrations of gaiety, romance, emotions and frivolity of the grand life at court.
Jacques-Louis David
Napoleon Crossing the Alps
1801 - 1805 102 x 87 inches
Jean-Antoine Watteau (1684-1721)
Pilgrimage to Cythera 1717
Neo Classical works the form of emphases on subject matter and it sought elements from antiquity. Therefore artists tried to imitate Antient Greek relatedly its subject and style.
Analytic Cubism turned away from the realistic modeling of figures and towards a system of representing bodies in space that employed small, tilted planes, set in a shallow space.
Synthetic Cubism proved equally important and influential for later artists. Instead of relying on depicted shapes and forms to represent objects, Picasso and Braque began to explore the use of foreign objects as abstract signs.
Dada was an artistic and literary movement that began in Zürich, Switzerland. It arose as a reaction to World War I and the nationalism that many thought had led to the war. Influenced by other avant-garde movements - Cubism, Futurism, Constructivism, and Expressionism - its output was wildly diverse, ranging from performance art to poetry, photography, sculpture, painting, and collage.
Surreal Techniques:
1 Aerography
2 Automatism
3 Bulletism
4 Calligramme
5 Collage
6 Coulage
7 Cubomania
8 Cut-up technique
9 Decalcomania
10 Dream résumé
11 Echo poem
12 Éclaboussure
13 Entopic graphomania
14 Étrécissements
15 Exquisite corpse
16 Frottage
17 Fumage
18 Games
19 Grattage
20 Heatage
21 Indecipherable writing
22 Involuntary sculpture
23 Latent news
24 Movement of liquid down a vertical surface
25 Outagraphy
26 Paranoiac-critical method
27 Parsemage
28 Photomontage
29 Soufflage
30 Surautomatism
31 Triptography
To free imagination by producing a creative process free of conscious control.
Some Surrealists consider
and games to be sources of inspiration only, while others consider them starting points for finished works. Others consider the items created through automatism to be finished works themselves, needing no further refinement.
The Persistence of Memory (1931)
Soft Construction with Boiled Beans (Premonition of Civil war) (1936)
Son of Man, 1964

Magritte said about 'Son of Man':

"At least it hides the face partly well, so you have the apparent face, the apple, hiding the visible but hidden, the face of the person. It's something that happens constantly. Everything we see hides another thing, we always want to see what is hidden by what we see. There is an interest in that which is hidden and which the visible does not show us. This interest can take the form of a quite intense feeling, a sort of conflict, one might say, between the visible that is hidden and the visible that is present."
The Treachery of Images, 1928
"Never, never do I set to work on a canvas in the state it comes in from the shop. I provoke accidents - a form, a splotch of color. Any accident is good enough. I let the matiere decide. Then I prepare a ground by, for example, wiping my brushes on the canvas. Letting fall some drops of turpentine on it would do just as well. If I want to make a drawing I crumple the sheet of paper or I wet it; the flowing water traces a line and this line may suggest what is to come next."
Joan Miró
Mother and Child Divided, 1993.
Glass and steel tanks, GRP composites, glass, silicon, cow, calf and formaldehyde solution

Away from the Flock, 1992 (CLICK TO ENLARGE)
Glass and steel tanks, GRP composites, glass, silicon, sheep and formaldehyde solution
'Images of the Floating World'
Japan from the 17th through 19th centuries.
Woodblock prints and paintings of such subjects as kabuki actors and sumo wrestlers; scenes from history and folk tales; travel scenes and landscapes; flora and fauna
Inspired artists from Europe- Influenced Van Gogh
Flat shapes, solid color, outlines. Strong
illustrative quality

Suzuki Harunob
Katsushika Hokusai
Utagawa Hiroshige
Kitagawa Utamaro
Van Gogh
Art Nouveau
A style of decorative art, architecture, and design
characterized by intricate linear designs and flowing curves based on natural forms.
western Europe and the US from about 1890 to 1915
Aubrey Beardsley
Gustave Klimt
Alfons Mucha
It promoted the idea of art and design as part of everyday life. Artists should not overlook any everyday object, no matter how functional it might be.

Aesthetic Philosophy/ Big IDEAS
Visual Characteristics:
Non-Objective, Geometric patterns and compositions- Primary colors/ bold/bright colors

Impressionism originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s. The Impressionists faced harsh opposition from the conventional art community in France.
Modernism vs Post Modernism:

The reaction took on multiple artistic forms for the next four decades, including
Conceptual art
Video art
Performance art
, and
Installation art
Postmodernism is best understood by defining the modernist ethos it replaced - that of the avant-garde who were active from 1860s to the 1950s.
The various artists in the
modern period
were driven by a radical and forward thinking approach,
ideas of technological positivity, and grand narratives of Western domination and progress.

The modern era arrived with the dawn of the industrial revolution in Western Europe in the mid-nineteenth century, one of the most crucial turning points in world history. With the invention and wide availability of such technologies as the internal combustion engine, large machine-powered factories, and electrical power generation in urban areas, the pace and quality of everyday life changed drastically.

Many people migrated from the rural farms to the city centers to find work, shifting the center of life from the family and village in the country to the expanding urban metropolises. With these developments, painters were drawn to these new visual landscapes, now bustling with all variety of modern spectacles and fashions.

A major technological development closely-related to the visual arts was photography. Photographic technology rapidly advanced, and within a few decades a photograph could reproduce any scene with perfect accuracy.

Although modern art as a term applies to a vast number of artistic genres spanning more than a century, aesthetically speaking, modern art is characterized by the artist's intent to portray a subject as it exists in the world, according to his or her unique perspective and is typified by a rejection of accepted or traditional styles and values.
Neo- Dada
is distinguished by a questioning of the master narratives that were embraced during the modern period, the most important being the notion that all progress - especially technological - is positive.
The arrival of Neo-Dada and Pop art in post-war America marked the beginning of a reaction against this mindset that came to be known as postmodernism.
Postmodernism is distinguished by a questioning of the master narratives that were embraced during the modern period, the most important being the notion that all progress - especially technological - is positive.
Postmodernism overturned the idea that there was one inherent meaning to a work of art or that this meaning was determined by the artist at the time of creation.

The Dada readymade had a marked influence on postmodernism in its questioning of authenticity and originality. Combined with the notion of appropriation, postmodernism often took the undermining of originality to the point of copyright infringement
The idea of breaking down distinctions between high and low art, particularly with the incorporation of elements of popular culture, was also a key element of postmodernism
1952- 1970
Known for their usage of mass media and found objects, as well as a penchant for performance. These artists rebelled against the emotionally charged paintings of the Abstract Expressionists that dominated the art world in the 1950s.
Jasper Johns
Allan Kaprow
Robert Rauschenberg
By representing common objects and images in the realm of fine art, Johns broke down the boundaries traditionally separating fine art and everyday life.
He effectively laid the foundation for the Pop art movement's aesthetic embrace of commodity culture with his playfully subversive appropriation of common signs and products.
Rauschenberg merged both traditional media and found objects within his
by inserting appropriated photographs and urban detritus amidst standard wall paintings.
Preferring to leave the interpretation of the works to his viewers, Rauschenberg allowed chance to determine the placement and combination of the different found images and objects in his artwork such that there were no predetermined arrangements or meanings embedded within the works.
changed the definition of the art object. "Art" was no longer an object to be viewed hanging on a wall or set on a pedestal; rather, it could now be anything at all, including movement, sound, and even scent.
Kaprow stated, "The everyday world is the most astonishing inspiration conceivable. A walk down 14th Street is more amazing than any masterpiece of art."
The Yard
Women licking jam off a car,' from his happening 'household' (1964)

“Yard was originally made in the sculpture garden of the Martha Jackson Gallery in New York. In 1961
Has been re-created 7 times

Canyon 1959
Automobile Tire Print 1953
Estate 1963
Flag 1954
Target 1958
Racing Thoughts- 1983
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