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Sentence Parts Subjects and Predicates

An intermediate look into the syntax and setup of sentences.
by

Paul Ghiglieri

on 31 August 2015

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Transcript of Sentence Parts Subjects and Predicates

Sentence Parts
Let's take a closer look
It is a group of words that expresses a complete thought, and it contains a
subject
and a
predicate
.

subject
: who/what sentence is about
predicate
: action subject does or word that links subject to more information about it.

Jefferson,
the dog,
chews
on his bone.
subject

predicate

Rachel,
my sister
, is
very intelligent.

subject predicate

If it is missing a subject or a predicate, then it's not a sentence. It's a
FRAGMENT:

The intelligent professor.
(missing a predicate - what did the professor do?)

Danced the night away.
(missing a subject - WHO danced?)
What is a sentence?
The subject tells us who or what the sentence is about. Every subject must be a person, place, thing, or idea.

To find the subject, ask yourself these two questions:

1) Who or what is this sentence about?
2) Who or what is doing something in this sentence?
Subject
Ex. Mr. G taught the class about subjects.

Q: Who or what is this sentence about?
A: It could be about Mr. G, the class, or subjects... right?
Examples
a. The photographer sold his photos for thousands of dollars.

b. After the ceremony, graduates received their diplomas
Your turn!
Predicates
Ex. The singer tripped on the stage.

Q: What does the sentence say about the singer (subject)?
A: The singer
tripped
.

Tripped
is the predicate!
Examples
a. The auditorium is spacious and clean.

b. I need to get a new pair of shoes.
Your Turn!
Simple Subjects and Complete Subjects
Rule 3: Turn questions into statements to find the subject.

Ex.
Has

everyone

had

a chance to sing
?

Everyone

has had

a chance to sing
.
Rule 3
Compound Subjects
It says something about the subject.
Predicates: Verbs and their objects or complements
- groups of related words that serve as building blocks of sentences on a larger scale than parts of speech.
Phrases and Clauses
Some
subjects
are not so easy to find, usually because they don't appear where we expect them to in a sentence.

Ex
. Tell Sammy to call me about the test.
Ex
. Which student won the raffle?
Ex
. There are ten students in this classroom.
Ex
. Some of my favorite songs are on this album.
Hard-to-Find Subjects
Remember: The subject of every sentence must be a noun or a pronoun.

Rule 1: The words "
here
" and "
there
" are not nouns, so they cannot be subjects. Invert the sentence to find the subject:

There
are ten students in this classroom.

What are there?

ten
students
students
= subject
Rule 1
a. There are consequences for your actions.

b. Here are the books you gave me.

c. Here is the car I bought today.
Your Turn!
I
gave
them the job right away.
Identifies an action that the subject performs or does to somebody or something.
Rule 2
SENTENCE: One of the boys will not make the team.
CONNECTION:
One
(
of
the boys) will not make the team.

SENTENCE:
We
sailed across the river.
LOCATION:
We
sailed (
across
the river).

SENTENCE: The class will learn grammar before lunch.
TIME: The
class
will learn grammar (
before
lunch).
Examples
a. The girl beside the fence is new.

b. The student with the right answer is correct.

c. During the intermission, we bought food.

d. Some of the girls went on the field trip.
Your Turn!
Rule 4
Rule 4: The subject of every command or request is understood as the word "you."


Compound Subjects and Predicates
Compound subject = 2 or more subjects with the same verb.

Compound predicate = 2 or more verbs with the same subject
Examples
1. Open the door.

Who should open the door?
(
You
) open the door.
subject =
You
2. Please wait your turn.

(
You
) please wait your turn.
Your Turn
a. Turn in your book report by Monday.

b. Please be considerate to others.

Examples
Compound
subject
:
Plants
and
animals
fascinate me.

Compound
predicate
:
Poison ivy
creeps
along the ground or
climbs
trees.
Your Turn
a. Either poison ivy or allergies can cause this itch.

b. Campers, bikers, and hikers often encounter poison ivy.

c. The outer covering of the berries dries and falls away.

d. Insects chew the leaves, make holes in them, and release the poison.
Contain two or more simple subjects connected with a conjunction such as: and.
Original
thinking and bold design
are characteristics of her work.
Examples
Peanut butter and Oreos make a delicious snack.
Your Turn!
Simple
It is the verb of the sentence.
Complete
The verb and its modifiers, objects, or complements.
Examples
Examples
That song
sent chills down my spine.
Transitive
Delivered, signaled, said.
Examples
Intransitive
Describes an action by a subject, but not an action done directly to anything.
Examples
Hit, ran, sat
Appositives rename nouns or pronouns and appear right after the word they rename.
Appositive Phrases
Example:
One researcher,
the widely respected R. S. Smith
, has shown that a child's performance on such tests can be inconsistent.

Computers can rip,
or copy
, audio files
from CDs.

Example:
In this example, the
appositive
renames
the
verb
.

The instructor
,

amazing Professor
Camper,

has successfully taught her
students how to actively engage in text.

Let's test your skills..
Can
YOU
identify the appositive in
this sentence?

Now let's learn about absolute phrases!
Absolute Phrases
modify an entire sentence. They include a noun or pronoun; a participle; and their related modifiers, objects, or complements. They provide details or causes.
The actors took their bows,

their spirits lifted by the
applause.
Here's an example..
So what part of this sentence is the absolute phrase?
The girl smiled at her mother, her heart pounding with the excitement of being a newly-wed.
Now its your turn!
Nouns Phrases and Verb Phrases
Noun Phrases consist of a noun/noun substitute & its modifiers. They function as a subject, object, or subject complement in sentences.
Let's take a closer look!
Subject:
The ancient, dusty library book
was fragile
.
Object:
Michael Phelps swam
the dark, icy waters
of the English Channel
.
Subject Complement:
Ralph Lauren is
an iconic and classical fashion designer
.
Verbals
Verbals are words derived from verbs. They function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs, but they do
NOT
serve as verbs.
Let's examine the different forms
of verbals!
Verbal Noun:
Crawling
comes before walking.
Verbal Adjective:
Chris tripped over the
crawling
child.
Verbal Adverb:
The child went
crawling
across the floor.
Sometimes appositives name
other parts of speech.

also known as subordinate clause
they have a subject and a predicate and cannot stand alone as a complete sentence
dependent clauses
also called relative clauses
adjective clauses modify pronouns or nouns
adjective clauses
adverb clauses
noun clauses
elliptical clauses
other clauses
identifying dependent clauses
Phrases
Verbals may take modifiers, objects, and complements to form three kinds of Verbal Phrases

Participals
Gerunds
Infinitives
Participial phrases begins with either a present participial (ing) or a past participial (ed/en) Function as adjectives and Often utilizes commas
Ex.

Insulted by his comment, Elizabeth refused to dance.
always uses the –ing form of a verb as a noun & commas NEVER follow a gerund phrase that begins a sentence
Ex.

My hobby is cooking steak on the grill.
Infinitive Phrases use the infinitive form( to be/to go/ to live) of a verb. They function as adverbs, adjectives or nouns and can be subject, complement, or direct object of a sentence.
Ex.

His publisher made him finish his novel.
- a group of related words that lack a subject, predicate, or both
Example
"The house at the end of the street caught on fire."
a. "At the end of the street."
b. "Caught on fire."
Clauses
- a group of related words that include a subject and predicate
Dependent Clause
Independent Clause
- can stand as their own sentence
- cannot stand alone;
function in sentences as adjectives, adverbs or nouns
Example:
a. I slept while he drove.
b. It is cold even though it's still summer.
Example
a. I slept.
b. It is cold.
A closer look at what makes a sentence... a sentence.
Gerund Phrases -
ANSWERS:

The
photographer
sold his photos for thousands of dollars.

b. After the ceremony,
graduates
received their diplomas
Q: Ok, then ask: Who or what is doing something in the sentence?

A:
Mr. G
is the only person or thing doing something.

Mr. G
is the subject!

Mr. G
taught the class about subjects.
The predicate (verb) tells what the subject does (action verb) or it
links
the subject to more information about it (linking verb). In short, the predicate explains what the sentence says about the subject.

Some verbs "
link
" the subject to an idea or something that is said about the subject. The linking verb is like an equal sign (=)

Ex. The seventh graders
are
cool.
The seventh graders
=
cool.
ANSWERS:


a. The auditorium
is
spacious and clean.

b. I
need
to get a new pair of shoes.
ANSWERS

a. consequences
b. books
c. car
Rule 2: A subject can never be part of a prepositional phrase.

Q: What are prepositions?
A: If we break the word into parts, we have PRE and POSITION. A preposition is a word that is POSITIONED before (PRE) another word and relates directly to that second word by showing a connection or beginning a phrase to show location or time.

**KEY**
: You can take prepositional phrases out of sentences, and the sentences will still be complete.
Answers
a. The
girl
(beside the fence) is new.

b. The
student
(with the right answer) is correct.

c. (During the intermission),
we
bought food.

d.
Some
(of the girls) went on the field trip.
Examples
a. Where have all the cowboys gone today?

b. Did you call your mother for Mother's Day?

c. How are the crops doing this season?

d. Can everyone please quiet down now?

Answers
a. Where have all the cowboys gone today?
The
cowboys
have gone where today.
subject =
cowboys

b. Did you call your mother for Mother's Day?
You
did call your mother for Mother's Day.

c. How are the crops doing this season?
The
crops
are doing how this season.

d. Can everyone please quiet down now?
Everyone
can please quiet down now.
Answers
a. Turn in your book report by Monday.
(
You
) turn in your book report by Monday.

b. Please be considerate to others.
(
You
) please be considerate to others.
Answers
a. Either
poison ivy
or
allergies
can cause this itch.

b.
Campers
,
bikers
, and
hikers
often encounter poison ivy.

c. The outer covering of the berries
dries
and
falls
away.

d. Insects
chew
the leaves,
make
holes in them, and
release
the poison.
Run on sentences
A
run on
is when you have two complete sentences running into each other without the appropriate punctuation.
Some
run on
sentences are very short:

She enjoys comedies they make her laugh.

full sentence
l
full sentence

Some
run on
sentences are long:

It is necessary for all students to learn to be respectful, responsible, and ready these qualities are the basis of what Yavneh expects from each and every one of its students.

Can you tell where one sentence ends
and the other begins?
There are 3 ways to fix a run on sentence:

She enjoys comedies they make her laugh.

1)
Add a period
and start a new sentence
She enjoys comedies
.
They make her laugh.

2)
Add a semi-colon
if the ideas are related
She enjoys comedies
;
they make her laugh.

3)
Add a comma and a conjunction
She enjoys comedies
, for
the make her laugh.
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