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Trochim, William. Deduction & Induction. October 20, 2006. http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/dedind.php (accessed January 17, 2013). By Alaya, ChiWen and Florence T.o.K. Presentation:
Perspective of Feminine Beauty Real-life Event: "Wouldn't they be surprised when one day I woke out of my black ugly dream, and my real hair, which was long and blond, would take place of the kinky mass? ...
My light-blue eyes were going to hypnotize them...
Because I was really white and because a cruel fairy stepmother ... had turned me into a too-big Negro girl." To what extent do intuition, reasoning and culture influence the perception of beauty? Reasoning Culture Conclusion The perception of beauty is collectively influenced by intuition, reasoning and culture. -Maya Angelou
I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings Why is this topic significant? Knowledge Issue Intuition Deductive Inductive What is intuition? & To draw general conclusions from observations and examples The Golden Ratio What is culture? The whole social, personal, intellectual, spiritual and commercial environment. The 3 Barriers:
1. Physical sensory
3. Awareness Threshold Intuition and Perception Perception is a sensational way of knowing 5 Senses: sight, touch, smell, hearing, taste Darwinian Theory of Beauty Evolution: 2 ways of selection A man observed swans in a lake in Europe. A. Natural Selection
B. Sexual Selection Dennis Dutton's Theory Beauty plays a role in sexual selection One choose their mate based on their attractiveness to make the best offspring
One intuitively assess the opposite gender's attractiveness to fulfill this purpose. "Evolution’s trick is to make things beautiful, to make them exert a magnetism and give one pleasure by looking at them" Received information gets filtered through several barriers that exist between our consciousness and the world. Have you ever seen a girl and think that she is pretty? Without knowing why? or.... Do you believe in love at first sight? We perceived beauty through senses
Intuition plays a role in our perception on beauty (subconsciously)
Mathematically and biologically
“Intuition (is) perception via the unconscious”
– Carl Gustav Jung For example... These quick judgments
are made based on information stored within your subconscious. Intuition is involves with YOU making these 'snap' judgement. Unconscious decision-making,
reaching conclusions in a similar rational way as your conscious thought processes would do.
Very fast, almost instantly
Gut feeling. Limitations
Theory Perception Intuition Reasoning Culture Media Tradition Involved with:
How one learns about culture &
How one is influenced by the media Social Comparison Theory People evaluate themselves in relation to their peers & social groups. Construction a mental representation of
NORMS and STANDARDS
based on what they see in others (observations) Festinger (1954) Inductive reasoning has a role in the social comparison theory, as it involves the creation of knowledge based on patterns in observation. Norms & Standards
What is acceptable and
what isn't in a society. Images of beauty portrayed in the media are unrealistic and dangerous. But,
women adopt these dangerous standards as being the acceptable norm.
they compare themselves with this 'norm'. T.o.K. relation:
Inductive reasoning is involved with
ow women internalize these beauty standards.
All individuals will aim to make the best offspring by judging their mate's attractiveness.
but is attractiveness solely based on genetic compatibility?
It has not taken into account the role of environment on the perception of beauty.
Darwinian Theory Problem of Induction Culture Tradition Media Culture:
Society has a certain perception on what the acceptable beauty should be
Women have been subject to judgment on the based attractiveness or beauty
Mental pressures, from bullying, bulimia and anorexia
We are guilty of using our perceptions of beauty to cast judgments - even ostracize others.
It is thus important to examine the factors that build perception of the 'acceptable' beauty. Subconscious decision making.
Reaches conclusions in a similar way as the conscious mind EXTREMELY fast The Golden Ratio Social Comparison Theory Making conclusions based on a limited scope
= Conclusions is not entirely accurate. Does reasoning lead to knowledge? Inductive reasoning is not always reliable,
BUT we depend on regularities nevertheless. Is it this easy to define someone as beautiful, simply because of the golden ratio?
Isn’t it highly possible that every single one of us has no opinions about beauty when just born, but just happened to have similar opinions about beauty due to similar experience and influence we have at young age?
Even with a perfectly proportioned face though, there are endless variations in coloring and the shapes of each facial features (eyes, eyebrows, lips, nose, etc.) Are we justified in reasoning from repeated instances? Bibliography Image Sources http://models1blog.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/coco-vogue-brazil-3-e1354294223877.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8e/SimilarGoldenRectangles.svg Music Language Art Literature Food Religion Drama Before countries are in contact with one another, different cultures had distinct perspectives to what is 'beautiful'. Observations, thus Inductive reasoning plays a role in learning about traditions. Barbie dolls Inductive
reasoning affects our perception
through repeated observation since
blue-eyed Each of us may have innate, individual, unique
tastes which doesn't correlate with others It is too reductionistic to say that
our perspective is ONLY molded by others. People are genetically coded to respond to stimulus differently, which is hard to altered Some people are just naturally harder to influence externally Social Comparison Theory & Problems of Induction Women always see ‘beautiful people’, thus pressured to reach their standards.
But, they are not really taught to think about the dangers behind reaching this ideal. Extreme exercising, plastic surgery, bulimia, even depression in the pursuit of being beautiful. Media only emphasized on the beautiful part and the
‘end product’. It even digs to
genetically and biologically hard- coded instincts
Example: Intuition almost instantly warns you on how to react in dangerous situations. a unique number, approximately
Ratio of proportion in
humans, and plants
Attractive and pleasing
to the human eye BUT, as it is a subconscious process,
one does not usually know
which information exactly s/he is referring to. Thus, we will talk about two possible information being accessed by the brain when an intuitive judgement is being made. The Golden Ratio Darwin's theory of evolution The Golden Ratio vs. Darwin's Theory of Beauty Intuition: All of us subconsciously recognize the golden ratio when we look at something beautiful.
Then, all of us will have the same perception of beauty.
Beauty is based on the mate’s illegibility to produce the best offspring.
Genetic compatibility with a mate is not the same between everyone.
different people will have different perceptions on beauty Because at a young age, Angelou’s sexual instincts may have not been awakened yet, so she has no basis to judge herself instinctively. So, Angelou judges herself based on observation, which is Caucasian women being praised and admired both in her real life and in the literature that she reads. A culture intolerant to African-Americans, but favoring Caucasians, lead her to inductively equate beauty with ‘blond hair’, ‘fair skin’ and ‘blue eyes’. But in Angelou’s case, reasoning and culture plays a stronger role compared to intuition in her perception of beauty. Area of Area of Knowledge:
Natural Sciences (Biology) Area of knowledge:
Mathematics Area of Knowledge:
Human Sciences (Psychology)