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How permanent are permanent markers

science fair project
by

Julien Milton

on 10 January 2013

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Transcript of How permanent are permanent markers

Hypothesis:
I hypothesize that permanent marker are not truly permanent on certain materials. Permanent markers are made from pigment and not dyes. Dyes are water soluble but pigment are not soluble in water. If you clean the markers with a no polar solvent like alcohol or acetone the markers are not truly permanent on certain materials. Purpose:
The purpose is to determine if permanent marker are truly permanent. Does it depend on brand of marker used? Does it depend on the material that is marked? Does the type of cleaning solution used make a difference in the ability to remove the marks ? How Permanent Are Permanent Markers?
Do different brands/types of markers produce the same results? Experimental Design:
4 marks 1/2 cm wide and 12cm long was made with a black Sharpie permanent marker and a Bic permanent marker on a flat smooth piece of wood, top of a tin can, ceramic tile, mirror, plastic DVD, and a rubber cabinet liner. The material was allowed to dry for 7days. After which an attempt was made to remove each mark by using 1/4 cup of the following cleaning solutions: Tide detergent , cold water, rubbing alcohol, and white vinegar. A Scotch Brite none scratch scouring pad was used to rub the marks up to ten times or until the stain was no longer visible. Material and Solvent Used:
1 Sharpie Permanent Marker
1 Bic Permanent Marker
1 smooth flat piece of wood
1 Tin Can
1 Ceramic Tile
Mirror
1 plastic DVD
1 rubber cabinet liner
Solvent:
1/4 cup Tide Detergent
1/4 cup cold water
1/4 cup rubbing Alcohol
1/4 cup Vinegar
8 small scotch Brite none scratch scouring pad cut in half Procedure:
1. Draw marks on each testing surface .(wood, tin, ceramic tile, mirror, plastic & rubber) With each marker.
2. Divide the lines into 4 parts by drawing 4 vertical lines on each testing surface.
3. Apply water on one section of the wood, vinegar on another section & rubbing alcohol on another section and detergent on another section.
4. Rub 10 times.
5. Repeat this for each type of markers.
6. Record your observation. Results:
The most difficult to clean was the wood. None of the solution was able to remove the marks from the wood. The easiest surface to clean was the mirror. The stain was completely removed on the mirror. The Tin Can was faded leaving a very faint mark. Conclusion:
The solution containing alcohol performed the best. The marks were deeply faded or completely removed on certain surfaces but not on all surfaces using alcohol. In conclusion permanent marker are only permanent on certain surfaces, no matter what brand of marker used. Data Analysis:
The most effective solution was the rubbing alcohol. It removed the marks from the surface best. Both detergent solution, water and vinegar was the less effective on all surfaces. The most difficult to clean was the wood surface. None of the solution was able to lift the mark from the wood. The easiest surface was the mirror, the marks was completely removed with little effort. The tin took some effort but the mark was faded and almost completely removed. By Julien Milton
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sharpie_(marker)

http://www.ehow.com/about_5365290_invented-permanent-markers.html

http://www.ehow.com/about_5091252_invented-sharpie-permanent-marker.html
http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blpen.htm

http://www.ehow.com/about_6299430_permanent-markers.html

http://www.ehow.com/facts_6822956_permanent-marker-information.html Background Research
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