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Plastics: Source, production & manufacture

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Crisbel Sabiniano

on 16 December 2013

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Transcript of Plastics: Source, production & manufacture

Plastics: Source, production & manufacture
In this PowerPoint we will be talking about the sources of plastics, how the raw materials is produced into a product which is manufactured into a certain item for a target audience.

What are plastics?
Plastics are a group of materials made up of long chains of molecules. A large proportion of them are known as hydrocarbons, because the long chain molecules consists of hydrogen and carbon atoms in various sources and are becoming more popular.

What are the tree main types of plastics?
Plastics can be grouped into three types:
- Thermoplastics: these materials can be repeatedly reheated and remoulded.
-Thermosets (thermosetting plastics: these undergo a chemical change resulting in them becoming permanently rigid, i.e. they cannot be reheated an reshaped.
- Elastomers: these are polymers that have a good elasticity,i.e. they can be distorted under pressure but will return to their original shape when the pressure is removed.
Plastics and production.
This section will break down how plastics are produced using fractional distillation. you will learn about how crude oil is broken down and used for more products such a plastics. And you will learn about cracking and how it helps shorten long chain carbon molecules.
Plastics and manufacturing.
Here we will be talking about how the plastic product is transformed into a specific item for different target audiences.

Production of plastic bags.
The plastic molecules are melted down so that it can be easier to stretch into a thin layer. Afterward it is placed onto a long machine and any printing is added onto it. Then it is places into an machine that cuts it and sometimes leave a resealable attachment.
This video explains more on how plastic bags are transformed from simple molecules into bags.
Fractional distillation.
How is synthetic plastic produced?
Fractional distillation is when they take crude oil and place it into a furnace then they heat it to high temperatures allowing the oil to evaporate then the elements with the same carbon bonds are released into different chambers. From there it is then brought into another process called cracking in which the separate the longer carbon bonds into shorter one so they can use it for plastics; i:e polystyrene
Synthetic Plastics
Synthetic plastic is man-made plastic and it is the most used plastic today.

What natural sources does synthetic plastic use?
Crude oil is the main source to produce plastics, however, coal and natural gas is also used to produce plastics.

What is crude oil?
It is a liquid found naturally in rocks, containing mostly complex hydrocarbons, with some additional organic material.
It is the major fuel used on the planet and is used int he production of many synthetic materials such as plastics.
It can come in many different weights and colours which can range from pure black or dark brown to greenish or yellowish.

Natural substances
Some of the natural substances that are used for producing plastics are crude oil. this is the main substance. and as crude oil is now becoming scarce they are persuading us to recycle. another reason they are doing this is because most plastics are not bio-degradable.

What natural sources are used to make plastic?
Some plastics requires plants, trees and animals.
Plants is used for cellulose (table tennis balls) and cellulose acetate (photographic film and handles).
Trees is used for latex (rubber) and Rosin (resin) paint.
Animals such as their horns are used for casein (glue).
Plastics and their sources.
This section will explain where plastics come from. It is broken down into what sources some plastics use and/or need to create a specific plastic.
How crude oil is extracted.
By : Jonelle, Crisbel and Angelina
This image is an example of one way in which some manufacturing companies use machines to produce products none stop.

Injection moulding.
Plastic granules are placed in the hopper which then drops into a spiral screw which is forced forward to the heaters.
Once the plastic granules are melted and is softened it is forced towards the mould making sure the mould cavity is filled up.
The product is left for a bit to cool down and is then taken out of the mould. Ejector pins are used to release the product from the mould halves.
Full transcript