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Civil War Part II
Transcript of Civil War Part II
Comparing North and South
"Seconds are centuries, minutes ages. Men fire into each other's face, not five feet apart. There are bayonet thrusts, sabre strokes, pistol shots...men going down on their hands and knees, spinning round like tops, throwing out their arms, gulping blood, falling; legless, armless, headless. There are ghastly heaps of dead men."-
Survivor of Pickett's Charge at Gettysburg
“The Veteran in a New Field”
Increased industrialization of North
Shortage of labor
Increased mechanization (using machines)
Bigger gap between wealthy and poor
Destruction of Southern infrastructure/ economy
Freedom for black Americans; backlash and resentment from whites
Growth of the West and rise of farmers’ groups
Impact of the Civil War
620,000 + men died (1 in 4 soldiers); one-third from battle wounds
Fatalities - Three of five Union soldiers and two of three Confederate soldiers died of disease and infection, not battle wounds (yellow fever, malaria, small pox, typhoid, dysentery, to name a few)
The nickname, “sawbones” comes from this era
The only available treatment for injury: Amputation
Both sides were forced to use conscription (the draft) to fill their ranks.
South – Spring of 1862, North – 1863
Draft riots in NYC – worst riots in US history
Both sides allowed the wealthy to avoid the draft by paying a fine or hiring a substitute.
South – needed plantation farming
North – immigrants often enlisted multiple times
“A Rich Man’s War But A Poor Man’s Fight”
“The art of war is simple enough. Find out where your enemy is. Get at him as soon as you can. Strike him as hard as you can, and keep moving on.”
* Not afraid of casualties
* Understands Northern advantages
Forces Lee to keep men in the field
* Uses war of attrition to his advantage
Sieges of Vicksburg and Petersburg, two important Confederate cities, can’t be broken by smaller Confederate forces
SIEGE - surrounding a location with troops so that nothing can get in or out
Movement on Richmond (Confederate capital)
* Shift to “total war” approach
“Unconditional Surrender” Grant
* Last major offensive action of the armies of the CSA
* Outcome was so bad for South, Lee offered to resign
* Forced South to return to a defensive strategy
* Union troops’ numerical advantage overwhelmed South
* Lincoln defined vision of postwar America - democracy would not be changed just because of the conflict
What made Gettysburg a turning point?
“The proportions of this rebellion were not for a long time understood. I saw that it involved the greatest difficulties, and would call forth all the powers of the whole country.”
--June 2, 1863
Lincoln’s Attitude Changes
Continued Union failure in the East
Fredericksburg & Chancellorsville
Stonewall Jackson killed by friendly fire
Continued success in the West
Forces under Ulysses S. Grant won Forts Henry and Donelson & Shiloh
Capture of New Orleans gave Union full control of Mississippi River
The Progress of the War
Print off the handout of guiding questions. Use these to help you take notes throughout the presentation.
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How to Use this Online Lecture
Oh, I'm a good old rebel
Now that’s just what I am
And for this Yankee nation
I do not give a damn.
I'm glad I fit (fought) against 'er
I only wish we'd won
I ain't asked any pardon
For anything I've done.
I hates the Yankee nation
And everything they do
I hates the declaration
Of independence too.
I hates the glorious union
'Tis dripping with our blood
I hates the striped banner
And fit (fought) it all I could.
I’m a Good Ole Rebel
“I may sometimes be willing to teach for nothing, but if paid at all, I shall never do a man's work for less than a man's pay.”
“What could I do but go with them [the soldiers], or work for them and my country? The patriot blood of my father was warm in my veins.”
Clara Barton Quotes
Nursing opens to women
Influenced by example of Florence Nightingale
Clara Barton – American Red Cross founder
Catholic nuns – treated all victims
Women in charge of the home front
Harriet Tubman served as a spy during the Civil War, in addition to being a famous "conductor" on the Underground Railroad
Changes for Women
While watching these battle lines so grand to look upon, but so terrible to think of when you remember the frightful waste of human lives they caused, the call came; "Bring the stretchers, a man hurt." Myself and Demas took the stretchers to look for the man, … who proved to be Bradford (our older brother) .... We were little more than children and the shock to us can be better imagined than described. …We carried him to the shallow ditch by the railroad a few rods to the rear, where the temporary field hospital was located… We then placed him in an ambulance still alive and conscious. We bid him goodbye and never saw him again. He only lived a short time and occupies an unknown grave.
Last war using drummer boys
Who Fought in the War?
Differences by Proportion
Divided upper South from lower South
Deprived Confederacy of crops, supplies, materials, transportation
Fueled resentment of the US government by former Confederates after the war
Sherman’s March to the Sea
What it was: Second planned invasion of Northern soil by Confederates
Purpose: Distract Union from war in the West, end civilian support for the war
Gettysburg, PA, was chosen (according to legend) because there was a warehouse with a supply of shoes in town. The Union already occupied the high ground, which was a great disadvantage for Lee.
Gettysburg – the second turning point
Laws to encourage western settlement that the South couldn’t block in Congress
Morrill Tariff Act
Homestead Act of 1862
Morrill Land Grant Act
Pacific Railway Act – 1863
National Bank Act
Expansion West Continues
A commonly accepted practice
* Outnumbered, outgunned, outspent
* RRDs, telegraph, rifles made Fabian strategy (avoiding battles) useless
* Would not use guerrilla warfare until end
* Confederate form of gov’t made it hard to coordinate efforts - states were free to pursue whatever strategy they chose
Why did the South lose?
* Grant surrounds Richmond
* Grant, Sherman, Sheridan on the move
* Sheridan’s forces surround Lee’s army
* Lee offers surrender, April 9th, 1865.
* The last Confederate army did not surrender until June of 1865.
Lee Surrenders – Appomattox Court House, VA
“If the people raise a howl against my barbarity and cruelty, I will answer that war is war, and not popularity-seeking. If they want peace, they and their relatives must stop the war.”
William Tecumseh Sherman
…on February 26, 1864 Congress resurrected the rank of lieutenant general, held previously only by George Washington. …Lincoln was heard to say, "I don't know General Grant's plans, and I don't want to know them. Thank God, I've got a general at last!"
“We have met a man this time, who either does not know when he is whipped, or who cares not if he loses his whole army.” – Southern soldier
“I cannot spare this man. He fights.” – Abraham Lincoln
Ulysses S. Grant takes control
The Gettysburg Address
All the pictures on this page are of casualties of the Battle of Gettysburg. Some were staged by photographers to make more of an impact on the viewing public, but others were taken “as is.” Note how swollen the bodies became in the July heat.
Later Phase – 1863 to End
The Civil War
We are not only fighting hostile armies, but a hostile people, and we must make old and young, rich and poor, feel the hard hand of war. – William T. Sherman, about the burning of Atlanta
All available resources (people and materials) are dedicated to the war effort.
Civilians are targeted along with military.
Ironclad ships (later became submarines)
Whoops ... nothing to see here...
Three hundred thousand Yankees
Is stiff in southern dust
We got three hundred thousand
Before they conquered us.
They died of southern fever
And southern steel and shot
I wish they was three million
Instead of what we got.
I can't take up my musket
And fight 'em down no mo'
But I ain't a-goin' to love 'em
Now that is serten sho. (certain sure.)
And I don't want no pardon
For what I was and am
I won't be reconstructed
And I do not give a damn.
I rode with Robert E. Lee
For three years there about
Got wounded in four places
And I starved at Pint Lookout.
I coutch the roomatism
Campin' in the snow
But I killed a chance of Yankees
And I'd like to kill some mo'.
Compare the attitude of the "Good Ole Rebel" with
the following image:
What was it like to be involved in hand to hand combat?