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Nouns

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Tiffany Ingle

on 16 January 2015

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Transcript of Nouns

Nouns
Verbs
Adjectives
Adverbs
Clauses
Phrases

People
Places
Things
Ideas
activities
subject
direct object
indirect object
object of preposition
The slow
Barista
gave
me

a free drink
at
Starbucks
.
What did they give?
freedom
love
happiness
usually non-count
count
or
non-count
plate
dog
game
nation
library

sand
rice
furniture
milk
ice cream
usually count
count - singular and plural
mom
teacher
librarian
constructio
n workers
president
women


My son
fell
while he
was running
on Sunday.
When he
fell
, he
scratched
his face.
Now, I
am going to put
ointment on it until it
gets
better.
My son usually
falls
down eight times a day or more.
He
has been falling
daily since he
learned
how to stand up.
I
don't

usually

fall
as much as my son
falls
.
verbs can be any tense.
phrasal verbs have verb and particle.
simple present verbs have -s for 3rd person singular subjects.

phrasal verbs: fall down
Jeremy Abbot

fell down

during his performance at the 2014 Winter Olympics, but he

got up

and
pulled off
an excellent performance.
Simple
go/goes
went
will go
progressive
am/are going
was/were going
will be going
perfect
have gone
had gone
will have gone
perfect progressive
have been gone
had been gone
will have been gone
GO!
Analyze the verbs in these sentences.
What can you conclude about verbs?
Every sentence has a
subject
and
predicate
.
the
subject
is what the sentence is about.
it is always a noun, noun phrase, or noun clause.
The
predicate
tells something about that subject.
It alwas contains the main verb of the sentence and may contain many other parts such as objects or prepositional phrases.
Can you find the subject and predicate in these sentences?
Failing stinks!
Perseverance is a hard thing to learn.
Experiencing failure is normal, but learning how to make failure into success is extraordinary.
Some people fear failure for their whole lives.
Other people take risks because they want something.
What people choose to do after failing can make them happy or sad.
What kind of person are you?
Failing
[stinks!]
Perseverance
[is a hard thing to learn.]
Experiencing failure
[is normal], but
learning how to make failure into success
[is extraordinary.]
Some people
[fear failure for their whole lives.]
Other people
[take risks because
they
want something.]
What people choose to do after failing
[can make them happy or sad.]
[What kind of person are]
you
?
Answers
Direct Objects are directly connected to the verb.
I went to the supermarket.
Coffee tastes good.
Sylvia called her mom last night.
Only one of these sentences has a direct object:
I
went
to
the supermarket
.
Coffee
tastes

good
.
Sylvia
called

her mom
last night.
Indirect objects only work with certain verbs:
Joe
bought

his girlfriend

a scarf
.
France
gave

America
the
Statue of Liberty
.
Indirect objects can always be changed to objects of a preposition
Joe bought
a scarf
for
his girlfriend
.
France gave
the Statue of Liberty
to
America
.
Adjectives always describe nouns.
What nouns are these adjectives describing?
1. The
tall
building seemed to touch the sky.
2. The
extra
set of keys was missing! She was
devastated
.
3. When I walked into the house, something smelled
delicious
.
Look for adjectives in 3 places:
Before nouns
After linking verbs
As adjective clauses
Where are the nouns here?
Where are the adjectives?
What are the adjectives describing?
Linking verbs:
be
feel
smell
look
sound
taste
seem
(become) - usually perfect tenses only.
1. I
am
tired.
2. He
feels
cold because he forgot his coat.
3. This food
smells
delicious.
4. That man
looks
nice.
5. That noise
sounded
terrible.
6. My dinner
tasted
wonderful.
7. The student
seemed
confused.
8. Exercising
has become
easier since I started doing it every day.


Linking verbs can sometimes be used as action verbs, but when they are action verbs, they do not connect adjectives:

He is feeling the sand on the beach with his hand.
The little boy is smelling the flowers.
The fire alarm is sounding! We have to evacuate!

*Exception: I think that English is becoming easier every day!


Adjective Clauses can describe nouns
The house
that is blue
looks nice.
I like the house
that is red
.
The man who is unpacking his truck might be moving into the house that is red.
Where are the adjective clauses?
djective
Things to remember:
that
is usually used in "defining" or "restrictive" adjective clauses.
which
is usually used in "non-defining" or "non-restrictive clauses. (think: comment, side note, opinion about the main sentence)
offsetting
commas
are necessary when using "non-restrictive" adjective clauses
The Land is a playground that takes up nearly an acre at the far end of a quiet housing development in North Wales.
The ground is muddy in spots and, at one end, slopes down steeply to a creek where a big, faded plastic boat that most people would have thrown away is wedged into the bank.
Nearby, a couple of boys are doing mad flips on a stack of filthy mattresses, which makes a fine trampoline.
There is, however, a frayed rope swing that carries you over the creek and deposits you on the other side, if you can make it that far (otherwise it deposits you in the creek).
On this day, the kids seem excited by a walker that was donated by one of the elderly neighbors and is repurposed, at different moments, as a scooter, a jail cell, and a gymnastics bar.
She wanted to design playgrounds with loose parts that kids could move around and manipulate, to create their own makeshift structures.
From these examples: what rules can you infer about adjective clause commas? Choosing to use "that" as the relative pronoun? Or other rules?
Adverbs can describe verbs or adjectives.
She
studies

hard
for every class.
He is
very

tall
compared to his brother.
Sometimes
adverbs end in -ly
Other times
, adverbs modify a whole sentence.
She
hardly
studies.
Unfortunately
, no one brought any chocolate cake today. (I'm sad about it)
Fortunately
, no one brought any chocolate cake today. (I am on a diet!)
Frequency Adverbs:
notice
verb
placement
I
always

drink
coffee in the morning.
I
almost always

have
breakfast.
I
usually
cook my own food. in the morning.
I
often

eat
healthy food.
I
eat
healthy food
often
.
I
eat
healthy food
often
.
I
go
to Von's
frequently
.
I
eat
at restarurants
sometimes
.
I
sometimes

eat
at restaurants.
I
eat
fast food
rarely
.
I
rarely

eat
fast food.
I
hardly ever

eat
at McDonalds.
I
almost never

eat
at McDonalds.
I
never

eat
at Carl's Jr.


Adverbs of frequency explain how often habits happen OR don't happen.

Verbs need to be placed correctly with frequency adverbs for the sentence structure to be correct. *Not all frequency adverbs are the same :S
He swims every day.
Sometimes, I really enjoy tea instead of coffee.
The very old man on the train was extremely kind.
He runs very well.
I went to the store quickly.
Please work quietly by yourself.
Please work independently.
That soup tastes delicious! (tricked you! what is "delicious?" What is it describing?)
The students were hurriedly walking to class.

Where are the adverbs?
What do they modify?
Full transcript