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The Road To Confederation

History Project

Coffee Crisp

on 20 February 2015

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Transcript of The Road To Confederation

The Road to Confederation
By: Neevi and Harsimran
Class 8I
Canada West or Ontario
Joined Confederation in 1867
Important political Figures were George Brown and John Macdonald.
Contributions: John Macdonald dominated all three conferences and he brought about the compromises that resulted in the union of the separate colonies. George Brown was his rival, but for the sake of Confederation, the two worked together in the Great Coalition. George Brown had many ideas and proposals that helped to shape Confederation, such as the Representation by Population suggestion. He fought hard for Confederation because it was the only answer to Canada's problems.
Main Reasons for entry: Great Britain's waning interest in the North American Colonies rose a desire to politically restructure Canada West. There was also political instability in both Canadas that motivated John Macdonald to raise an appeal for coalition with George Brown. Also, American Threats and Fenian threats were a major factor. Canada West had also amassed a huge debt from railway construction and pooling debts together would relieve stress on the colony. The Charlottetown, Quebec, and London Conferences were held to discuss the idea of a union with Canada East and also with the Maritime Colonies.
Canada West or Ontario
Joined Confederation in 1949
Important political figures were Joseph Smallwood and F.Gordon Bradley.
Contributions: Joseph Smallwood was a part of the Confederate Association. He also campaigned and spoke for Confederation. He and F.Gordon Bradley went to Ottawa to negotiate terms for an agreement. An agreement was finally reached thanks to their hard work.
Main Reason for Entry: Newfoundland was willing to join Canada, but the Canadian Government could not be as generous without angering the other provinces, so Newfoundland refused. After Newfoundland got itself into a huge debt and and the National Convention was made, Confederation again became an option and a request was made to the Canadian Government.
Confederation Timeline
Canada East or Quebec
Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Joined Confederation in 1867
Important political Figures were Charles Tupper and Joseph Howe.
Contributions: Charles Tupper was leader of the Nova Scotia delegates at all three Confederation conferences, and contributed a lot to confederation. Joseph Howe fought for a responsible government and better terms for Nova Scotians.
Main reasons for entry: Originally considering a Maritime Union, Nova Scotia felt that the region would have more influence bargaining for things (for example, the intercolonial railway) as one large group instead of three small ones.
New Brunswick
Joined Confederation in 1867
Important political Figure was Samuel Leonard Tilley.
Contributions: Tilley supported confederation from the very beginning. He was a delegate to all three conferences, and spoke for support of union.
Main reasons for entry: The military and economic security of New Brunswick was an important factor. There was also a wider market for goods and the promise of the intercolonial railway (ICR).
North West Territories
Joined Confederation in 1870
Important political Figure was Frederick William Haultain.
Contributions: Haultain's political career was marked by his belief in the Northwest Territories' right to strong political power, and he worked tirelessly to obtain responsible government.
Main Reason for entry: The Hudson's Bay Company transfers Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to the government of Canada, and they make it into a province so that they can have their dominion stretch from coast to coast.
New Brunswick
British Columbia
North-West Territories
Joined Confederation in 1896
Important political Figures were James Walsh and Sir Samuel Benfield Steele.
Contributions: James Walsh served as the primary negotiator between Sitting Bull and the United States Army in the 1870s, during Sitting Bull's exile in Canada. Sir Samuel Benfield Steele was connected with many major events in history, from the Fenian raids to the First World War. His actions as an officer of the North West Mounted Police, particularly during the Klondike Gold Rush, helped protect Yukon.
Main Reasons for Entry: After gold was discovered in the area, Canada sent in the North West. Mounted Police to show they controlled the area. The population grew rapidly. The Klondike gold rush attracted many Americans and people feared the United States would take over the area if they did not join.
Joined Confederation in 1999
Important political Figure was John Amagoalik.
Contributions: John Amagoalik has been active in Inuit politics for many years, and was instrumental in the campaign for the creation of Nunavut. He was also involved in the quest for compensation for Inuit families that were relocated. He fought hard for Nunavut's confederation and creation.
Main Reason for Entry: The Inuit people wanted control over their own lands and resources in the Arctic. Without consulting them, decisions had been made about Confederation and the use of their lands. They negotiated to regain control of their land as a territory joined to Canada.
Joined Confederation in 1870
Important political figure was William McDougall
Contributions: William McDougall joined the Great Coalition in 1864. He was active in the creation of Confederation and attended the Charlottetown, Québec and London conferences.
Main Reason for Entry: Métis concerns caused Métis leader Louis Riel to establish a local provisional government as part of the Red River Rebellion. In response, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald introduced the Manitoba Act in the Canadian House of Commons.
Joined Confederation in 1878
Important political figure was Thomas Heath Haviland.
Contributions: Haviland supported Confederation and helped to create the vision of a union at a time when many of his fellow Islanders rejected the idea.
Main Reason for Entry: P.E.I. saw no benefit in Confederation, and rejected all the offers made by Canada. It was only when P.E.I. realized that it faced imminent financial collapse unless it had help. P.E.I. then approached the Canadians about Confederation.
Prince Edward Island
Joined Confederation in 1904
Important political Figures were Charles Fitzpatrick and Frederick William Haultain.
Contributions: Charles Fitzpatrick played an active role in the evolution of Western Canada's political situation. In 1905, he took part as the federal government representative, in the negotiations that led to the creation of the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. Frederick William Haultain was among the most active politicians in the fight to create the province of Saskatchewan. and he worked tirelessly to obtain responsible government. for schools and other services the growing population needed.
Main Reason for Entry: The leader Frederick Haultain felt that they should have the same government as the other provinces, and be able to collect taxes to pay for schools and other services the growing population needed.
Canada East or Québec
Joined Confederation in 1867
Important political Figures were George-Étienne Cartier and Alexander Tilloch Galt.
Contributions: Together with John A. Macdonald, George-Étienne Cartier was co-premier of the Province of Canada. He took part in the Charlottetown, Québec and London conferences, and was among the most ardent supporters of Confederation. Alexander Galt was most prominent during the conferences; he was involved in the issue of economic development and was committed to defending the rights of religious minorities.
Main Reasons for entry: Great Britain was losing interest in its North American colonies, which were an economic, military and political burden. Great Britain was no longer interested in financing the defense of its North American colonies.
British Columbia
Joined Confederation in 1871
Important political figures were Amor De Cosmos and John Robson.
Contributions: Amor de Cosmos used his paper as a way
to campaign for responsible government, and to advocate Confederation. John Robson, another editor turned politician, also helped to organize the Yale Conference of September 1868, where delegates spoke about their demands for responsible government and union with Canada. During the Great Confederation Debate in the provincial legislature in 1870, De Cosmos hinted at rebellion over Clause 15 (which stated that British Columbia would continue without responsible government after Confederation).
Main Reasons for entry: The Gold Rush had caused a big debt and a union with Vancouver Island had not solved the problem. After the Americans bought Alaska in 1867, British Columbia feared that the United States would attempt to link its western territory by annexing (taking over) British Columbia. There was also demand for responsible government and union with Canada from people like De Cosmos and Robson.
Pre-Confederation Map of Canada

Main Reason for Entry: The population had grown and the territories were no longer just a fur trade area. The region featured farming, logging, mining, and the railway. They also had to find a way to administer the growing population.
Pearson Canadian History Textbook
Their stories, Our History Textbook
Natural Resources Canada (images)
Library and Archives Canada
Yahoo answers.com
Britannica Student Encyclopedia
Full transcript