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Information-Processing Theory

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Carol Cabral

on 7 October 2014

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Transcript of Information-Processing Theory

CH:12 Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood
Information-Processing Theory
-Attention and memory
-Controlling attention and memory is important to self-regulated and executive function.
Attention -selective attention involves two facets
1The ability to focus on significance information, such as paying attention of what the teacher is teaching
2.The ability to ignore unimportant and distracting information such as noise outside of the classroom

Testing visual attention are used in eye doctors appoint as in a dark room and a screen is one and showing a Red letter and the eye doctors ask to focus on the red letter.

Difficulties with attention
-The resulting stress hormones may affect their brain development, making it harder to pay attention.
-Dyslexia, a biological based difficulty in learning to read, show distinct who have selective attention to letter in words.

Attention and Metacognition
-Metacognition, children’s ability to think about their own thought processes and use that knowledge to each a goal.
Information-Processing and Attention

Two forms of knowledge and thinking
-Spontaneous concepts are informal and unscientific and are general ideas about the way the world works that are based on experiences outside of formal education.
- Scientific concepts are information taught in school.

- The use of inner speech, or subvocalized thinking, increase during the middle-childhood period and helps children to control their actions and certain aspects of their learning.
-Inner- speech uses short phrases rather than full sentences.

Zone of proximal is the instructor needs to be in the same level of education as her students are in or if not the students will get frustrate and give up.
•Scaffolding, guidance or support adjusted to the child’s level of performance.
-reciprocal teaching is used to improve reading comprehension.
Four Cognitive Strategies
Example story time

Development in Middle Childhood

He focuses on children’s social and cultural worlds of their development such as social interactions, language, and learning in the zone of proximal development.
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory

•His studies were based on a small portion of Swiss children and use that data as if occurs to all children.
•Researchers have found the performance on Piagetian tasks varies based on the familiarity of the material concepts, and activities.
•Deficiency perspective is how children’s reasoning differs from that of adults, and identified the differences as deficiencies the children’s thinking.

Criticisms of Piaget’s Theory

1.Provide opportunities for children to learn to classify information using classes and subclasses. Ex fruits and vegetables
2.Construct problems involving seriation, such as having children place typical classroom objects in a series based on weight.
3.Help children to understand conservation by reversing their thinking.

Helping Children Develop Their Cognitive Skills in the Classroom

• Conversation is a realization that the essence of something remains the same even through surface characteristics may change.
Ex. There are two cups fills up with water. One cup is filling up half way and the other cup is filling up ¾ of the cup. But a child will state that the two cups have equal amount of water.
-During middle childhood, children show abilities to conserve number, volume, length, and mass. The logical arguments they use to explain their reasoning includes identify, reversibility, and compensation.
•Identity. Children state that no water has been added to or subtracted from either jar, so the amount of water must be same.
•Reversibility. Children reason that you can pour the water back into the original jar and it will look the same as it did originally. Reversibility is one of the key features of developing cognitive operations. It means that children can retrace their thinking.
•Compensation. Children argue that the water in the taller jar is higher, but it’s also narrower. They have compensated for the height increase by noting by nothing that decreases in circumference.

Horizontal decalage is children develop some types of conversation earlier than other.
Seriation refers to children’s ability to arrange objects by increasing or decreasing size.

Classification involves the ability to put like objects together into the same category or class.
•Hierarchical Classification involves knowing that small groups, or subclass, are part of larger groups, or classes.

Accomplishment of the concrete Operational Period

- At around age 7 that when children are in the concrete operations or so that what Piaget believed.
- Children start to think differently such as deductive and logical reasoning and manipulated concrete objects or symbols.
Example a child can establish difference heights for three blocks (A, B, C) because they can visual and memorize the different height. However, if the children will need to find out who is taller is more complex to detect the height differences because they can visualize and compare the differences.
-Coherent and integrated systems of internalized mental action know as cognitive operation.

Piaget’s Theory about concrete operations

• What are the characteristics of children’s thinking during the concrete operational stage, according to Piaget?
• What are some themes in Vygotsky’s theory that are especially relevant to the middle-childhood years?
• What are the main types and functions of attention and memory, and why do they assume such significance in middle childhood?
• What are some different perspectives on intelligence?
• What significant advances in language development, literacy, and mathematics understand occur in the middle- childhood years?

Key Questions

Some children have learning difficulties, which means that they may not know the same learning strategies and may fail to use the ones that they do know. Here are some ways to help create a climate that promotes the use of memory strategies:
Asking children specific questions about how they remembered certain material.
Grade students on their use of strategies, not just their final answers.
Develop a checklist of memory strategies for children to use as they study and complete assignments.
Promote strategy-sharing time for all the students in the classroom, when they can discuss strategies with each other.

Teaching Effective Memory Strategies

Just as children in middle childhood use metacognition to improve their attentional strategies, they also use this aspect of cognition to think about and employ memory strategies. There are three types of metacognition relevant to the process of remembering:
1. Declarative metacognition- Knowing what to do when faced with a challenge. This involves explicit and conscious knowledge about what our cognitive skills are and what strategies we have available to use.
2. Procedural metacognition- Knowing how to apply the available strategies. This may not be conscious, so we may do this without realizing we are doing it.
3. Conditional metacognition- knowing when and why to apply certain strategies.
All of these improve in middle childhood, but conditional may develop in later middle childhood as it is more complex than the other two.

Memory and Metacognition

Imagery- When children remember information by drawing a visual image.
Chunking- When children remember things by putting individual units into larger groups.
Meaning- Children can assign something from their personal life to whatever it is they are needing to remember.
Categorizing- Children use familiar categories to aid their retention. Another term for this is semantic organization.
Rehearsal- Repeating things over and over until it is memorized. This seems obvious but children don’t tend to do this on their own until they are about 7 years old.
Elaboration- Imposing meaning on a list of items or on unrelated pieces of information by creating a sentence or acronym for them. This is often the most effective strategy for remembering factual information.

Memory Strategies

There are steps that children must take to remember something. First, they must encode the information which means to place the information into their memory.
The second step is storing the information. In this step, the information that has been encoded is transferred from short-term memory to long-term memory. If this fails to happen, the information will be lost.
The third step involves retrieving the information. Children must recall information from long-term memory and move it to working memory.
During middle childhood, children get much better at their cognitive processing and thus, get much better at working through these three steps.

The Process of Remembering

During middle childhood, children’s memory improve. They are asked to remember more material and to succeed in school they must improve in both what they remembered and how they remember
Types of memory:
1. Episodic memory- the ability to remember events. It is tied to a particular time and place.
2. Autobiographical memory- a type of episodic memory that involves memories of personally relevant events in our own lives.
Example: Remembering going to Disneyland for the first time when you were 5. It was a significant life event and you may not remember all the details but possibly when it happened.


Scientists today view attention as having its own underlying brain structure.
The two facets of attention are: One, what a child is focusing on and two, filtering distractions around them. Both engage in the frontal lobe in the brain.
Neuroscientists have identified three specific neural networks to help explain attentional processes:
1. Alerting network- helps children reach and maintain an alert state.
2. Orienting network- helps children sustain attention when working on a task.
3. Executive control network- helps children regulate their thoughts and emotions.


Howard Gardner believed there were 8 or 9 separate intelligences
(sensitivity to structure, rhythm, and sounds)
(able to appreciate forms of musical expressions)
(able to work on number patterns)
(able to perform transformation based on visual representation)
(control body movements skillfully)
(able to detect moods, motives, and desires of others)
(sensitivity to ones emotional state)
(understand systems of nature)
-Existential (possibly) (
sensitivity to issues related to life and death)
Some educators suggest that teachers evaluate students strengths and provide more effective instruction by teaching to those strengths

Theory of multiple intelligences

Binets Test: a test used for identifying children who were behind on completing tasks for their age group.
- IQ Test was devised by the Binets Test,
Divide mental age by chronological age and then multiply the result by 100 to get a score
Wechslers Test:
-consists of verbal skills and performance skills
-consists of solving puzzles, completing mazes, and rearranging sets of pictures to tell a story

Types of Intelligence Tests

When parents are involved with the school, it takes a positive effect on children's lives
Children have positive experiences at school and gain educational achievement when they see that their parents are interested

Parents and the School

: Students whose first language is not English
No Child Left Behind Act
-Schools focus on underserved populations (disabilities, ELL, and low-income students)
Mandates that these students learn English as soon as possible
There is controversy on how to best serve ELL students and when state tests, mandated by the law, should be taken

English Language Learners (ELL)

Math: by middle childhood, children learn that an order of numbers does not matter, the sum will remain the same
Develop better skill in performing operations such as subtraction, multiplication, and division.
Their problem solving in word problems will advance as well

Language: by middle childhood, children are learning up to 20 new words a day by teachers, parents, or peers.
Improvement in:
quantifiers (several books),
adjectives, complex sentences,
syntax (way words are combined to form an understandable sentence),
Semantics (meaning of phrases and sentences)
-Irony and sarcasm

Development of Language and Math Skills:

Test scores
: there is a normal distribution that is a bell shaped curve that describes the variability of scores around an average, which is set to 100
Only 3% score higher and 3% score lower
Having Intellectual disability means
-Scoring below 70
-limitations both in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, including social and practical skills of daily living.

Results of Tests

Acquiring knowledge and using knowledge as well as thinking about knowledge.
Heredity and environment interact to determine intelligence
Some theorists believe that intelligence is a general ability (good at one task, will be good in others).
Others think it’s a set of different factors (there is some kind of intelligence but not others).

Intelligence and thinking

: Reading and writing in complex ways relating to the increasingly complicated world of work and life outside of school.

Literacy Skills:
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