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Cardiovascular System

Lecture notes from a high school Anatomy and Physiology class on the Cardiovascular System
by

Kelly Quinlan

on 20 March 2013

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Transcript of Cardiovascular System

Circulatory System Warm up... What do you think the Cardiovascular system is? What organs make up this system? What does it do? . Right Atrium Right Ventricle Left Atrium Left Ventricle Flow of blood through the Heart Aorta (pumps de-oxygenated blood to
the lungs) (pumps oxygenated blood to the body) Blood Vessels Normal resting heart rate is
between 60-100 beats per minute (BMP). Take a minute to take your pulse and see if you can identify your heart rate For the next few minutes, create a flow chart of the path of blood from the Superior/Inferior Vena Cava through the heart and to the Aorta. Blood Cardiovascular Disease is the leading cause of death in the U.S. - High blood pressure and High Cholesterol increase your risk for Cardiovascular disease. Both begin to develop in your teens. Hypertension - Consistently having a blood pressure of 140/90 or higher.
- Damages blood vessels and puts a strain on the heart. High Cholesterol "Bad cholesterol". LDL cholesterol is transported throughout the body and can cause plaque to build up in arteries, causing Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). Atherosclerosis caused
by high LDL Cholesterol can
lead to a heart attack or stroke atherosclerosis High Chol. Heart attack / Stroke Heart attack Pulminary Artery Are you are concerned about your cardiac health? Do you do anything to improve/maintain your cardiac health? Functions Delivering Materials to Cells

Removing Waste

Fighting Disease ex. oxygen, nutrients... ex. CO2 - forming scabs and attacking microbes that cause disease or infection Health Myth Many people think high blood pressure is a part of the aging process, but this is not a naturally occurring progression. Diagram of the Heart i Superior Vena Cava Inferior Vena Cava Heart valves permit blood flow in only one direction, preventing blood from flowing backwards. Heart muscle is made of cardiac muscle tissue Coverings of the heart The Coronary Arteries directly supply the cardiac muscle with oxygenated blood The human body has around 60,000 miles of blood vessels Fun Fact... Blood vessels that carry blood (usually oxygenated) AWAY from the heart.

ex. Aorta, coronary,
carotid, femoral Arteriole - small arteries
that branch off of large arteries Artery Vein Blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart (usually deoxygenated). Ex. Jugular, superior/inferior vena cava Unlike arteries, veins contain valves that keep blood flowing to the heart and prevent backflow. Venule - small vein that delivers blood to larger veins This is important in the lower extremities Vericose veins Valves stop working normally and leak blood backwards. This causes veins to
bulge. Risk Factors:
- Older age
- Being Female
- Lack of exercise
- Obesity
- Family History
- Prolonged sitting Capillaries Microscopic vessels only one cell thick that permit the exchange of nutrients, oxygen and waste between blood and body tissues by diffusion. Gasses and nutrients are exchanges by diffusion Lungs Body tissues Venule Arteriole Plasma Erythrocytes Leukocytes Thrombocytes - complex tissue that transports nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body Fluid component of blood - contains water, proteins, and other solutes (ions, nutrients...) 55% (Red Blood Cells) - Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide due to a special molecule called hemoglobin. Hemoglobin - Molecule made of mostly iron that can bind to O and CO molecules and transport them throughout the body.

- Each RBC contains millions
of hemoglobin molecules 2 2 Anemia - A disorder in which a person has less than the normal amount of functional RBCs and cannot adequately transport oxygen to body tissues - can be reversed by eating more iron so the body can roduce more hemoglobin - Erythropoesis, or the formation of RBCs, occurs in bone marrow - Lifespan is about 120 days (White Blood Cells) - Cells involved in the immune response.
- Attack and destroy foreign substances (Platelets) - Cells involved in clotting - As soon as blood is removed from the vessel, platelets immediately stick together to form a clot.
- A connective protein called fibrin aids in clot formation Blood Types The term "Blood Type" refers to presence or absence of various antibodies in a person's blood. This is important because if
a person with A blood is given B blood during a transfusion, their immune system will attack the blood thinking it is a foreign invader. Type AB - Universal Recipient
Type O - Universal Donor Coagulation - The process in which blood forms a clot Hemophelia A genetic disease that leads to a decreased abitity for blood to coagulate
- sufferers cant for scabs, which leads to excessive blood loss and higher risk of infection Blood Pressure Systolic blood pressure


Diastolic blood pressure - the point during each heart beat where there is the lowest pressure in the arteries - the point during each heart beat where there is the highest pressure in the arteries Normal blood pressure is 120/80

High blood pressure (Hypertension) is >140/90 Systolic Diastolic Risk Factors: - older age
- family history
- obesity
- lack of exercise
- smoking
- high salt intake
- stress "Healthy cholesterol". Carries excess LDL cholesterol from arteries to the liver
for recycling. Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol) High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol) Exercise and a diet high in fruits and vegetables can increase HDL cholesterol (myocardial infarction) If plaque on the artery wall ruptures, platelets will try to repair the rupture by forming a clot.
This blocks blood flow through the artery, and the tissue in this area will die. Symptoms - Pressure or pain in the chest, back or arm
- Fullness, indigestion, or choking feeling
- Sweating, nausea, or dizziness
- Extreme weakness or shortness of breath
- Rapid or irregular heartbeats Respiratory System Figure 18.04 Branching of Airways from the Trachea and Lobes of the Lungs Alveoli - tiny air sacs lined with capillaries to allow for diffusion of Oxygen into the blood and CO2 and water out. Figure 18.06 Structure of an Alveolus O is taken into the blood through the lungs and carried to body tissues, while CO is remove from body tissues, carried through the blood and expelled by the lungs. Circulation of O and CO 2 2 2 2 Cardiovascular System - being African American
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