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Transcript of Cognitive Psychology
This is the evidence given in court or in a police investigation by someone who has witnessed a crime or an accident.
Can also be effected by schemas expectations of how events should happen. (Tuckey and Brewer).
There are several methods of improving memory here are some;
What is Memory?
Memory is the process by which we retain information about events that have happened in the past, this can also mean the immediate like the start of this sentence.
The Working Model of Memory
This model was created by Baddelley and Hitch in order to elaborate on the STM. They tested their theory that there was more than one component in the STM.
They made the Pps do a dual task experiment.
They had to perform a reasoning task while reciting a six digit number.
They found that Pps made few mistakes.
Because of these results the created the WMM.
3 main components;
The Multi-Store Model of Memory
This model was created by Atkinson and Shiffrin. Consists of the sensory memory, the STM and the LTM.
This registers information from the external environment. It has 3 main stores. And codes in these modes.
Iconic store - visual information
Echoic store- acoustic information
Haptic store- tactile information (feel, touch and smell)
Stores this information for a very brief period of time (split seconds) and can hold only a few pieces of info at once.
Limited duration and limited capacity
Short Term Memory
Conrad- C1 - Acousticly simliar letters
C2 - Acousticly dissimlar letters
After presentation asked to write down letters in serial order.
PPs made mistakes in C1 as they sound the same causing acoustic confusion
Baddelley - C1: Acousticly similar words
C2: Acousticly dissimilar words
C3: Semantically similar words
C4: Semantically dissimilar words
Presented 10 random words and tested them after 20 mins interval to stop rehearsal.
The Central Executive
2 Slave systems
In control of task control- what slave system does what
The Phonological Loop
Known as the 'inner ear'
Limited capacity holds verbal information in speech form
Articulatory loop to
Means words can be remembered through subvocal repetition.
The Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad
Known as the 'inner eye' as it stores info in visual based form.
From inner scribe (spatial movement and awareness) to
Visual cache - colour of things
C1- Showed the Pps a chart of letters (3 rows) for 50 ms and then asked to recall. They only managed to recall about 3-4/12
C2:- He introduced tunes which he assigned to each row. High tone = top row, medium tone = middle row, low tone = bottom row. Showed them the chart for same time and asked to recall when tone was played. They recalled on average 3 per row with this.
Concluded info fades in time taken to report back.
Evidence Glanzer et al.
Primacy Effect and Recency Effect
Showed Pps a list of words
C1: Asked to recall straight after presentation
They remembered first few and last few
C2: Asked to count backwards in 3s for 30 seconds later
Recency effect disrupted
MRI scans show that prefrontal cortex active when STM engaged
After the 30s interference task, primacy effect still intact as words were transferred to the LTM
MRI scans show that hippocampus is active when doing LTM is engaged
Peterson and Peterson - created consonant trigrams like CXK
PPs then asked to count backwards from a given number
After intervals of 3,6,9,12,15,18 secs. Asked to report back
PPs were able to remember most of the trigrams after 3 secs
As intervals increased performance decreased
Conclusion information decays rapidly if not rehearsed.
Capacity - 7+/- 2 Miller
Found that words which had the same semantic meaning were poorly recalled
Bahrick - Showed students pictures of there classmates 34 years after graduation
Called them back 47 years later and there the performance was lower
Capacity - Unlimited
Evidence- Baddeley et al.
Showed Pps list of words and straight after asked them to white them down in serial order
C1: List of 5 one-syllable words
C2: List of 5 polysyllabic words
The one-syllable words were remembered better.
Word length effect
Capacity of the P-L determined by pronunciation time
Articulatory suppression got rid of the word length effect
'La La La' condition.
Evidence - Bunge et al.
MRI/ PET scans show that prefrontal cortex is more active when the person is give a dual task to perform.
Evidence - Baddeley et al.
PPs asked to perform dual taks
Follow a spot of light round in a circle
Pps shown shape of capital letter for split second
Asked questions on angles of the shape
Pps found this difficult because both task competing for the same resources
Leading questions - A question phrased in a way which prompt a particular answer. This can lead to the eye witness, intergrading the misleading information into their memory.
It can also leaded to reconstructed memory as the eye witnesses changes their representation of events to be able to answer the question.
They fill in the gaps in there memory in order to answer the question.
This can effect the eye-witness testimony as the children and elderly are very suggestible and susceptible to leading questions. Valentine et al.
Under the age of 8 they do not have the ability to de-centre themselves. Or source monitor. Poole and Lindsay
Some studies suggests that anxiety helps and some contradict this. Can effect eye witness testimonies as it depends under how much stress the person was in at the time of the event.
Studies - Loftus and Burn
- Showed participants, violent vid of boy shot in the face
- participants has impaired recall leading up to the events. Suggesting anxiety improves recall
Some evidence suggest that at the right levels of anxiety your recall is best. Yerkes- Dodson Law.
Poole and Lindsay
- Children 3-8 took part in science demonstration
- Then parents read them an account of demonstration which included some misleading information.
- The kids where then asked to report back what happened some incorporated some of the misleading from the story.
When asked to source monitor only the older kids could do this.
Deffenbacher et al.
- Investigated effects of heightened anxiety on accuracy of eyewitness recall.
- He found that high levels of stress negatively impact recall
Christianson et al.
- Found that out of 58 real witnesses of real bank robberies those most threatened where more accurate in their report
Loftus - Weapon Focus Effect
Pps made to sit outside of lab
- C1 - Disagreement - man comes out with pen and greasy hands
- C2 - Violent exchange - man comes out with bloody knife
Pps shown 50 pics of men and had to pic out man who came out of lab.
Pps in C1 more accurate, those in C2 less accurate as they were too focused on weapon.
They showed 45 Pps 7 films and after asked them wether the cars , smashed, collided,hit,bumped or contacted each other. each verb was asked to 9 pps.
After asked to estimate average speed of cars upon impact.
Smashed pps estimated higher.
150 pps showed 1 film
-50 asked for speed when cars smashed
-50 asked for speed when cars hit
-50 weren't questioned (control)
1 week later 2 questioned on broken glass
16 out of smashed group said yes to broken glass
There was no broken glass.
They concluded that it may have confused the participants
Cognitive Interview Technique
Geilseman et al. created the CI technique. which consists of these methods.
- CR - Asking questions about specifics to trigger the memory
- RE - Asking the person to report everything they remember (no interruptions)
- CP - asking the EW to report from another persons point of view
- RO - asking the EW to report starting from the end and they can go backwards and forth in time.
-These were good at getting information but had flaws as some can not be used on children (CP).
- The interviews will need more training which will take longer
-Also takes more time to complete
This is used mostly for STM and LTM
Loci - This is the mothod of associating information with different places usually rooms or journey which are familiar to you.
Key Word Method - Where you associate two pieces of information together.
Spider diagrams - This is the method of making notes of information in a form of a drawing using a branching pattern.
This too is used for both STM and LTM
Acronyms - This is where a sentence or word is formed from the initial letters of other words
Acoustic - A poem or sentence where the first letter in each line or word forms the item to be remembered.
Rhymes - This are groups of words with a rhythm. The alphabet is Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star. This is used to remember the alphabet.
This is used mostly for LTM. It means information which is understood better is more likely to get recalled better.
Study: Craike and Lockhart, they food out that memory depends on deep and meaningful processing at the point of learning.
This is mostly used for STM. It works be dividing information into smaller bits so they are easy to process.
Strengths and Weaknesses
-Influenced a lot of research
- Gave an insight in how memory processes information
- There is a lot of evidence to support this
- It's too simplistic
- Rehearsal only way of processing info into LTM
- Flash bulb memories (Kulik)
- Evidence mostly from lab studies
Strengths and Weaknesses
- Explains the STM
- Gives more information
- Can be applied to real life (P-L and reading)
- Can explain earlier research (Patient KF)
- Influenced many research
- Most research were lab studies
- Only elaborates on STM
- Central Executive isn't really explained
- Still can't explain some things like, listening to music and typing
- More research is needed
Factors affecting Capacity of STM
1) Reading aloud: digit span increases if participants can read them aloud. Baddeley suggested this is because it is stored briefly in the echoic store.
2) Pronunciation time: Arabic speakers have lower digit span than English speakers as their numbers take longer to pronounce.