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Possessive pronouns: his, her
-ess actress, mistress,
-ix dominatrix Articles: la, las, el, los
Nouns: las orejas, los labios
Adjectives: guapos, guapas
Pronouns: ella, él, nosotros, nosotras, vosotros
vosotras, ellos, ellas
Possessive pronouns: mio, mia, tuyo, tuya,
nuestro, nuestra, vuestro, vuestra, suyo, suya
Micromachismos? free of explicit or implicit reference to gender or sex 1st Wave:19th and 20th Century; Focus: Suffrage
2nd Wave: 1960's-1980's; Focus: "unofficial inequalities," reflection on personal lives, education, Title IX, Roe v. Wade
3rd Wave: 1990's- Present; Focus: the failures of 2nd
wave feminism, addressing color, sexuality,
poverty, global perspective difference in connotation and register between gendered pairs of words Pejorative term: a word or grammatical form that connotes negativity and expresses contempt or distaste 12th century: "gai"- full of joy
17th century: "gay"- bright/showy--> sexually promiscuous; oxford dictionary defines it as "addicted to pleasures and dissipations
Mid-20th century: "gay" mean homosexual male
Late 1980's: "gay" was now used to mean "lame" European Inquisition: a bundle of stick used to set fires to the heretics
U.S.A. Early 20th Century: used to refer to men who were "less than masculine"
Present: the most common slur to abuse homosexual and heterosexual males 16th Century- scottish meaning of "peculiar, or strange"
1798- in the Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue queer had 23 entries, all of them having negative connotations
19th century- "queer bub" was a bad liquor; "shove the queer" meant to pass counterfeit money
1914: L.A. times wrote about drag shows as a place
where "queer people" had a good time
1950's: queer was interchangeable with other
homophobic words like "fairy" TERMS Sex: refers to a person’s biological status and is typically categorized as male, female, or intersex (i.e., atypical combinations of features that usually distinguish male from female).
Gender:refers to the attitudes, feelings, and behaviors that a given culture associates with a person’s biological sex.
Gender identity: refers to “one’s sense of oneself as male, female, or transgender."
Gender expression: refers to the “…way in which a person acts to communicate gender within a given culture; for example, in terms of clothing, communication patterns and interests."
Sexual orientation: refers to the sex of those to whom one is sexually and romantically attracted
Coming out:refers to the process in which one acknowledges and accepts one’s own sexual orientation. It also includes the process in which one discloses one’s sexual orientation to others. The way in which words in a language are marked that indicates a certain sex.
1. A man walked into a restaurant.
2. He was drinking a coca-cola.
3.Man is a primate.
4.When a student enters the room, he should take a seat.
Where gender-neutrality fails
5. Man breastfeeds his young.
6. Man has two sexes; male and female. "Man" "he" and "his" Aims to Gender-Neutralize Words Instead of:
Policeman Police Officer
Mailman Mail person
Stewardess Flight attendant
He S/he; he or she, they Male Female Client Client
Master Mistress Women Men Slut
Siren Ladies man
Man-slut Feminism: theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes, and organized activity on behalf of women's rights and common interests Transgender Lexicon Genderqueer: a gender identification that is
outside the sex binary of female or male
Cisgender: gender identification that matches
the sex that one is assigned at birth, preferred
over "biological man/woman"
Ze, per, sie, hir, v, they, them, one, e, eir:
genderless pronouns Egalitarian Language A language, or lexicon that seeks equality; essentially genderless, classless etc. Is this the solution?
Can we have egalitarian language? SOURCES Anti-Defamation League. GLSEN. StoryCorps.“Unheard Voices: Stories of LGBT
History.” 2011. http://archive.adl.org/education/curriculum_connections/unheard-voices/
Cara. “More Than Words: Queer, Part 1 (The Early Years).” Autostraddle. 9 January
HeresTheLyrics. 13 August 2008. It’s A Man’s Man’s Man’s World-James Brown
(Lyrics). 3 March 2013. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IwuO2dfqrF4.
Hiskey, Daven. “How ‘Gay’ Came to Mean ‘Homosexual.’” Today I Found Out. 25
February 2010. http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2010/02/how-gay-came-to-
Jones, Ryan K. 5 July 2010. The Mad Men School of Seduction. 3 March 2013. http://
M.,Anthony. 13 October 2011. Miss Representation Extended Trailer. 3 March 2013.
Mandelo, Brit. “Queering SFF: Writing Queer-Languages of Power.” TOR. 16 November
Nordqvist, Christian. “What is the Difference Between Sex and Gender?” Medical News
Today. 5 August 2011. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/232363.php
Norton, Rictor. "Queer Language." A Critique of Social Constructionism and Postmodern
Queer Theory. 16 July 2002, updated 2 July 2011 http://www.rictornorton.co.uk/
Saul, Jennifer. “Feminist Philosophy of Language.”Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
3 September 2004, updated 15 June 2010.
Stockwell, Peter. Sociolinguistics: A resource book for students. London and New York:Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2007.
Walker, Naomi K. “Making Language Equal for Both Genders.” Ethics Daily:
Challenging People of Faith to Advance the Common Good. 4 October, 2012. http://
Whitney, Emerson. “Queering Language.” Huffpost Gay Voices. 14 November 2011.
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/emerson-whitney/queering-language_b_1088112.html. Debate Questions
1. Do you think the effort to neutralize words is overkill? Is egalitarian language worth our time? Why or why not?
2. Verbal question.
3. Women in the class: do you feel like the English/Spanish/Galician language inhibits your ability to express yourself?
4. Spanish speakers, do you feel like feminine endings of words have negative connotations? Are there feminist movements or other movements to get rid of “micromachismos”?
5. Where do these perspectives and ideas about women and men come from? How do we go about changing the connotations of words?
6. Is there a similar list of pejorative terms or phrases in Spanish concerning transgender/homosexual?
Offensive Language Towards Women