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Transcript of Swiss History
in the 4th Century Part of Charlemagne Empire In the 10th century, as the rule of the Carolingians waned, Magyars destroyed Basel and St. Gallen In the 12th century, Dukes of Zahnringen found many cities including Fribourg and Bern After the fall of Zahnringen Dynasty, the mountain passes including the St Gotthard Pass under the Hohenstaufen rule gained importance. 13th Century Reichsfrei meant that the regions, Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden were directly under control of the emperor 3 founding cantons of the Swiss Eidgenossenschaft stood united against the Habsburg armies Uri Schwyz Unterwalden later joined by Lucerne, Berne and Zurich in 1291 and then in 1353.. Glarus, Zug @ 1499, The Swiss defeated the Swabian league and gained collective autonomy within the Holy Roman Empire 16th Century 1513 Zurich Bern Basel Schaffhausen Lucerne Uri Schwyz Nidwalden Fribourg Solothurn Catholics Protestant Kappeler Kriege A religious war between Protestants and Catholics 1529 and 1531 Treaty of Wastphalia In 1648 this treaty was made to stop 30 years of war. Holy Roman Emperor Spain France Swedish Empire Dutch Republic French Revolution The French overrun Switzerland during their battle with Austria United Helvetic Republic was formed and the cantons were abolished 1798-1848 1808, Napolean's Act of Mediation restored sovereignty to the cantons 1815, Congress of Vienna, Switzerland is recognized as a neutral state permanently and Switzerland is independent again Federal State of Switzerland Radical Party were mostly from the Protestant Cantons
It forms the majority of the Federal Diet in the 1840s 1847, Catholics formed a separate union within the Confederatation, the Sonderbund LAST armed conflict within the Swiss territory Early 20th Century World War 1 Grimm-Hoffmann affair questioned Switzerland's neutrality Robert Grimm negotiated a peace treaty with Russia to end the war on the eastern front on the grounds of Socialism. Arthur Hoffmann, a Swiss Federal Councilor supported the notion and had to step down World War 2 Switzerland remained Neutral but Germany considered invading. Switzerland mobilized the army in the Alps to prepare in the event of an invasion A small Nazi group in Switzerland attempted to cause an Anschluss(a merger between Germany, Austria and Switzerland) but failed. Trade was hindered by the allies and the axis which limited the food supplies they received World War 2 - Trade Swiss Franc was the only freely convertible currency in the world
Germany sold approximately 1.3billion gold to Switzerland 1/2 of food and ALL of fuel is being traded into Switzerland World War 2 - Massive Immigration 300 000 refugees came to Switzerland 60 000 wanted to escape persecution from the Nazis 26000 were Jews Jews formed about 18000 to 28000 of the Swiss population of 4 million at the beginning of the war 20th Century Nuclear BOMB 1958, Swiss population voted in favor for the construction of the bomb BUT it was never built Because of Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Protestant free Democrats Catholic Christian Democrats Social Democrats People's Party 1963, Switzerland joined the Council of Europe Only allowed to vote in 1971 1971, Women allowed to vote in most cantons 1979, New canton, Jura was formed 2002, by POPULAR vote, Switzerland is part of the United Nations THANK YOU!