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Copy of Meetings, Expositions, Events and Conventions by Fenich, Thi

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Jori Marks

on 3 December 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Meetings, Expositions, Events and Conventions by Fenich, Thi

Meetings, Expositions, Events and Conventions by Fenich, Third Edition.
Chapter 1

Introduction to the Meetings, Expositions, Events, and Conventions Industry
Chapter 2
Meeting, Exhibition, Event, and Convention Organizers and Sponsors
Chapter 3
Destination Marketing Organizations
Chapter 6
Service Contractors
The Event industry
Chapter 4
Meeting and Convention Venues
Chapter 5
Exhibitions
Chapter 7
Destination Management Companies
Chapter 8
Special Events Management
Chapter 9
Planning and Producing MEEC Gatherings
Chapter 10
Food and Beverage
Chapter 11
Legal issues in the MEEC
Chapter 12
Technology and the Meeting Professional
Chapter 13
Green Meetings and Social Responsibility
Chapter 14
International Aspects in the MEEC
Chapter 15
Putting it all Together
Jori marks
Chapter 1
• Apex- An initiative of the Convention Industry Council (CIC) to create and enhance efficiencies throughout the Meetings, Expositions, Events and Conventions (MEEC) industries.
• Apex Forms
1. Industry Glossary, Event Specifications Guide, Request for Proposals Forms, Housing and Registration Accepted Practices, Contracts Accepted Practices, Post-Event Report, Meeting and Site Profile Report
• A meeting is a gathering for business, educational, or social purposes- Combination of education sessions and exhibits, Seminars, forums, symposiums, conferences, workshops, clinics., Domestic meeting, National Meeting, people prefer face to face, learn from peers, and include all forms of communication (verbal and nonverbal), Build communities of practice which strengthen skills, impact change, observe accomplishments, renew acquaintances, learn new products/services
6 step process- Consider general scenarios, examine the organization market, asses the organizations internal core capabilities, Put pieces together, identify tactical initiatives to support strategic directives, and implement the scenario.
• Employment opportunities- Event Planner, Meeting planner, Wedding Planner, Hotel or Conference sales, Restaurant sales, Entertainment/Sporting Venue Sales, Destination Management, Hotels, Convention Centers, Exposition services contractors, Destination marketing organizations
• What exactly do planners do?, Logistics, Strategic , Association, Corporate, Independent and Overview site selection, transportation arrangements, function rooms, guest rooms, exhibits, food and beverage, negotiating and legal considerations, speaker arrangements, marketing, on-site management.
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
chapter 7
chapter 8
chapter 9
chapter 10
chapter 11
chapter 12
chapter 13
chapter 14
chapter 15

Who holds gatherings?
Corporations, Public Corporations,Private Corporations,
Hold meetings to:
Train key personnel’s, introduce new products/services, develop long term business plans, provide publicity, and honor employees.
Decision makers:
Officers, Senior managers in sales and marketing, Senior financial managers and controllers
Associations-
Including conventions, topical conferences, world congresses, topical workshops, and seminars, Conventions, board meetings, committee meetings, regional conferences, training meetings, educational seminars
Stages of decision making-
Board of directors recommend a meeting, recommendation to board by a planner, contracts negotiated on behalf of the board by senior staff
• Government-
City, county, state or province, National or International. Both association and corporation meetings
3. Agencies and departments
4. Employee training, interdepartmental/interagency, agency employees and general public interested in a topic, legislative hearings and retreats

Security-
works with department of homeland security, coordinates all parties involved, establishes a security team, proactive rather than reactive, stays informed and alert to incidents
• Organizing gatherings
Exhibition management companies -Owns and manage shows
Trade shows- shows that are business to business, not open to public, may be part of a convention or a stand alone
Expositions- shows that are open to the public- Manage shows for associations sponsoring corporation and government clients and Develop and produce shows
Public shows- exhibit products and services, open to public, usually charge an admission fee
Decision makers- owners and senior managers of company owned shows, association executives and board of directors, profit motive is the driving force
Attendees-
trade shows attendee is by trade of profession, public shows defined by interest and location
• Other organizations who hold gatherings include political organizations, labor unions, fraternal groups, military and education groups.


• DMO-
A not-for-profit organization representing a specific destination and helping its long term economic development through its travel and tourism industries DMO's are funded by Transient room taxes, government allocations, private memberships, or a combination of all three. They are valuable because they assist with meeting preparation, encourage visiting of local attractions, offers unbiased information about services and facilities, serve as a one stop shop for local tourist interests, generally do not charge for their services
• Misconceptions about DMOS-
only book hotel rooms and convention space, only work with large groups, own and/or run convention centers, planners must pay DMOs for their services
• DMOs can-
Provide access to a range of services and packages, Help locate meeting space, Check hotel availability, Arrange for site inspections, Link planners and suppliers( Motor coach companies, caterers, off0site entertainment venues)
• Advantages of using DMOs - Assist planners in all areas of planning, Provide planners with detailed references, Establish room blocks at hotels, Market destination to attendees, Act as a liaison between planners and the community, Help develop companion programs

• Destination Marketing Association International (DMAI)
1. World’s largest resource for official DMOs.
2. Mission is to enhance the professionalism, effectiveness, and images of DMOs.
3. Founded in 1914, originally called the Conventions and Visitors Bureau (CVB)
4. Serves over 1300 professionals from more than 600 DMOs in more than 25 countries.
5. Services include
a. Comprehensive Year round education programs
b. Publishes a weekly electronic newsletter
c. Sponsors DMO-focused research studies through its foundation
d. Actively promotes DMOs worldwide
e. Links DMOs directly to consumers and meeting planners

• DMAI’s Meeting Information Network (MINT)
1. Premier conventions and meetings online database
2. Houses information on over 34,000 meetings from 17,000 organizations
3. Over 150 DMOs report detailed meeting history information on events held in their cities
4. Provide critical marketing and sales direction to DMOs and the convention industry
5. Development offerings- annual convention, Destination Management and Marketing Institute (DMMI), CEO forum, Global Executive Forum, COO/CFO Forum, Sales Academy, Shirtsleeve Sessions
• DMAI’s Certified Destination Management Executive Program (CDME)
1. CDME- Certified destination management executive
2. PDM Certificate- Professional Destination Management
3. DMAP- Destination Marketing Accreditation Program

In general- Match revenue with goals and objectives, Complete a needs analysis , Research and know characteristics and financial requirements of the venue
• Hotels-
Board rooms, ballrooms, break-out rooms, exhibit space, temporary structures, outdoor space, pre-function space, Revenue sources, Guest Rooms, Guest room charges (Restaurant, Bar, room service, concessions at pool, spa, beach, telephone and business), Meetings (Food, beverage, space rental, audio visual, entertainment, décor), Connection to theme parks, Casinos, time of the week, Coordinating conflicting meetings
• Convention Centers-
No sleeping rooms, Offer banquet and concession food and beverage, Have large, flexible space, Small trade shows, Usually owned by city, county, or local government, Majority of space is exhibit halls and utilitarian spaces, Built in stage, Management must consider long and short term marketing, Revenue sources. Rental Fees for exhibit space and meeting rooms, Catering services (Exclusive or Preferred vendors)
• Retreat Facilities-
Very rural, Similar to conference centers, May be owned by religious or not-for-profit groups, families or closely held corporations, Extracurricular activities
• Cruise Ships-
Captive audience, Variety of styles (Incentive trips, special interest cruises, isolated meetings), Unique meeting space, Complete meeting package pricing
• Specific Use Facilities-
Theaters, Amphitheaters, Arenas, Stadiums, Sports facilities, Nightclubs
• College and Universities-
Most available in summer months and at a lower cost, Quality of housing, food, meeting space not as high as a hotel or conference center, College art museums, student centers, campus theatres
• Unusual Venues-
Parks and nature preserves, Airplane hangers, Garages, Tented parking lots
• Function Room Set-Ups-
Auditorium or Theatre style for Interaction, Classroom style to Take notes and tests with Rounds, conversations, crescent rounds


• Types of Shows-
Private shows or Trade shows, Consumer or trade shows , Consolidation show

Exhibition Management Key Players-
Exhibition organizer,Facility Manager, Convention service manager or event manager, General Service Contractor
• Considerations in planning the show-
1. Location-
Major effect on attendance, Same place year after year, Negotiate good deals , Attendance is steady, Typically for association meetings, Move to various locations, Attendance base and allows new attendees, Rotation between specific cities
2. Shipping and storage-
Outside materials need to be transported then stored, Process then reversed
3. Marketing and promotion-
attendance is key success, need to attract exhibitors and attendees,General sponsorships, Special event sponsorships, Advertising in the show daily and show directory, Promotional items sponsorship
4. Technology-
Impact of the internet on marketing, Lead retrieval systems, Radio Frequency identification, CD-ROMs and flash drives instead of hard copies/brochures
5.
Risk and Crisis Management-
Identify all potential risks for show management and exhibitors, Quantifies each risk to determine the effect it would have, Provides assessment of risks, risk avoidance steps, and risk mitigation steps
• Why exhibit?-
Branding their name in industry, Annual presentation of a product, New product rollout Opportunities
• Design principles
- Exhibit design principles, Selecting correct size and layout for budget and purpose , Using proper signage, lighting, and personnel, Location of space, considerations(Traffic pattern, Location of entrance, Food facilities, Restrooms, Location of industry leaders, Location of competitors)
Standard booths -
10 x 10- 100 square feet, Inline
Peninsula-
Four or more standard booths that are back to back with an aisle on three sides
Island-
Four or more standard booths that are back to back with an aisle on four sides
Exhibit staff-
Most important part, Staff needs to be trained to be meet and greet warmly, Qualify a visitor and ask right questions, Conducts product demonstrations that focus attention on the main message
• Measuring Return on Investment (ROI)-
Space rental, Service contractor services, Personnel travel and time, Customer entertainment, Preshow mailings, Freight chargers, Photography, Brochure printing and shipment, Promotional items, Training, Post-show mailings

• Service contractor-
Anyone who provides a product or service for the exhibitors or show management during the actual show or conference. Historically referred to as “decorators". Involved in every aspect of the show from move-in to running the show, to tear down and move out
• General Service Contractor-
Also called the Official show contractor or exposition services contractor. Hired by event management and exhibitors. General studies include: installing and dismantling, creating and hanging signage and banners, laying carpet, and providing booth/stand furniture. Material handling, or “drayage”- Delivery of exhibit materials from the dock to an assigned exhibit space, removing empty crates, returning crates at the end of the event for re-crafting, and delivering materials back to dock for carrier loading. Drayage charge and drayage form. Most important service offered is to hire and manage labor- standing contracts with unions and tradespeople, how to hire enough labor to move a show in and out based on its requirements, move the freight in and out of the facility, manage the flow of trucks, oversee the storage of crates and boxes. Creates exhibitor service manual kit- May include promotional opportunities for pre-show and on-site promotion, compilation of all show information, such as dates, times, and rules/regulations, sent to be confirmed and registered exhibitors, forms for all exhibitor services provided by the contractor and specialty contractors. Trade unions- Tradespeople may be involved in the show, learn of the local conditions involving trade unions, right to work state, may be limited in some basic work tasks to use the unions exclusively
• Specialty service contractor-
Account management, on site coordination, pipe and drape, registration areas, booth setup and breakdown, planning and layout design of exhibit area, carpet and furniture, signs and graphics, backdrops, interface with labor and unions, etc., Audio-visual, businesses services, catering, cleaning services, consulting, drayage and freight, electrical, floral, furniture, labor planning and supervision, lighting, models, photography, postal and package services, security, translators, utilities, etc.,
• Evolution of service contractor-
Changing to meet the needs of the client and the environment: increasing their scope of services to center an exhibit on providing GSC service in-house, realizing that that exhibition is the driving force of trade shows, exhibitions are more specific about wants and needs, exhibitors want service contractors to help them get the best return on investment to justify expenses, competition between service contractors and EACs has encouraged more specialized, streamlined, and efficient services. Private trade shows, hospitality events, new technologies including floor plans and web site development, expanding into event marketing, and developing.
• Organization of service contracting company-
Sales, logistics, drayage and warehouse, event technology, event services, production, account and finance. Work specifically with the exhibiting company through the year in the areas of installation and dismantle, décor, exhibit design and storage Same duties as specialty contractor but only for a specific exhibitor, not the show manager. Exclusive services- those that can only be provided by an official service contractor appointed by show management. Many facilities have very specific guidelines rewarding the use of EACs
• Resources in the service contractor industry-
Canadian Association of Exposition Management (CAEM), Exhibit Display Producers Association (EDPA), Exhibition Services and Contractors Association (ESCA), Exhibitor Appointed Contractors Association (EACA), International Association for Exhibition Management (IAEM), National Association of Consumer Shows (NACS)


• DMC-
is a professional management company specializing in the design and implementation of events, activities, tours, staffing, and transportation utilizing extensive local knowledge, expertise, and resources. A DMC offers, but is not limited to, guest tours, special events within the meeting, VIP amenities, transportation, staffing for conferences, entertainment, décor, on-site registration, and housing. Works with airlines, hotels, resorts, convention centers, alternative revenues, and transportation companies
• Services provided by DMCs-
Hired by meeting planners, hotel and event venue selection, creative itineraries, special event and creative theme concepts, event production, sight-seeing options, team building activities, meeting support services, transportation planning and delivery, dining programs, entertainers, speakers, VIP services, staffing services, budgeting and resource management
• DMC’s VS. DMO’S-
DMO’s work with interests of community and private companies that provide services, DMC’s get leads on new accounts from planners that have gone through a DMO, Responding to clients RFP’s take considerable time
• Business structure of DMC’s -
Staff, temporary field staff, office, technology, licenses and insurance, community contacts, customer contacts, history of success, destination resources, Must have a strategically located office, DMC’s must be legally insure for business liability and standard coverage , DMC’s compete in a relationship driven industry and must keep up with contacts
• Business Model of DMC’s-
Clients and customers are defined as those who plan meetings, exhibitions, events, conventions, and incentive travel programs, The client is a representation of the customer, company, or organization who works directly with the DMC on programs or events, The planner is a person who represents the customer, company, or organization who works directly with the DMC on programs or events, The customer, client, and the planner can be three separate entities or “one and the same”
• DMC Clients-
Corporate accounts- National sales meetings, training meetings, product introductions, dealer/customer meetings, Association accounts- Industry trade shows, professional trade shows and conferences, fraternal organizations, education conferences, political conventions, Incentive-based organizations- Sales incentives, dealer incentives, service manager incentives
• The DMC Process
1. The sales process- Business opportunities- association, corporate meetings and events, incentive travel, international travel
2. Identifying new business opportunities- Industry trade show attendance, community sales efforts and networking industry events, utilization of representation firms, newsletters, brochures, and collateral materials, partnerships and memberships in DMC industry groups
3. Request for proposal(RFP)- Project specifications, research and development, creativity and innovation, budgets, response time, competition
4. Project specifications- Group size, choice of hotel, meeting space allotment, dates/types of services required, attendee demographics, approximate budget, past history/current deadlines
5. Pricing- total estimated costs for services, staff time necessary before, during and after program, amount of DMC resources necessary, supplier choice and availability, time of year and local business activity, cost of taking staff off of market during season
6. Program development- Move from active selling to program operations, confirm with suppliers, response to client changes and requests, project manager is assigned, staff, supervisors, tour guides, escorts are hired and briefed. Program execution- Transportation management, event production, tour and activity management, support staff supervision, supplier/vendor management, meeting support, customer relations, on-site changes, troubleshooting, community liaison, information source. Production of events- cocktail receptions and networking events, breakfast, luncheons, dinners, dining events at unique venues, gala dinner events, extravagant theme parties, outdoor and indoor team-building events, events for staff to meet and mingle, events for sales staff with meet and mingle with clients, events on final night of incentive program to “fire up”, events to promote casual networking
7. Wrap up and billing- Final invoice reflects the contractual agreements, additions and deletions indicated, try to get planners approval of billing on site, follow up evaluations of DMC services by client, debriefing of staff
• Finding and selecting a destination management company-
Careful considerations- how long the company has been in business, what are the experience levels of the management and staff, what are the personalities of the management team, is the DMC an affiliated member of a professional organization, is the DMC adequately bonded, what is the quality of their references
• Destination Management Company resources-
Products, reputations, experience, relationships, suppliers and vendors, credit and buying power.

• Special Event-
A onetime event that is staged for the purpose of celebration.
• Special events company-
A company that may contract to put on an entire event or parts of one.
• Special events production company-
May present special effects and theatrical acts, may hire speakers as part of their contract.
• Understanding community infrastructure-
CEO of company, Politian’s, prominent business leaders, civic and community groups, media, other community leaders
• Merchandising and promotion of special events
1. Advertising- Any paid form of non-personal communication about an event. Direct marketing- a form of advertising that communicates directly with target customer with intent of generating a response
2. Sales promotion- marketing activities that provide value or incentive with the intention of stimulating sales
3. Publicity- Not directly paid for, nor has an identified sponsor
4. Social media- viral marketing, Facebook, blogging, linked in, ning, twitter
5. Public relations- Purpose is to systematically plan and distribute information is an attempt to control or manage the image or publicity
6. Personal selling- Person to person in attempt to persuade
• Sponsorships for special events-
Provide funds or in kind contributions and receive consideration in the form of logo usage to identify with the event, Help underwrite and defray costs, Act as strong marketing tool, Growing because- economic changes, ability to target market segments, ability to measure results, fragmentation of media, growth of diverse population segments
• Media
1. Coverage- generating media coverage is the most effective way to attract attendance. Schedule earlier in the day to make evening news. Friday is the best day of the week-slower news day. Saturday and Sunday may be limited due to smaller news crew
2. Target market- Know the customer/consume, Know the consumers options and choices, Define the audience, Direct planning, program, schedule, and expenditures toward that group, Demonstrate the positive economic impact
• Preparing for the special event-
Secure a venue, Obtain permits, Involve government agencies, Involve the health department of food/beverage, Meet all parties in person, Secure all vendors and suppliers, Recognize complexities of dealing with public sector, Recognize logistics community must contend with such as road closures, Set up a security plan, Secure liability insurance, Determine ticket prices and sales distribution, Developing other basic business support functions, Develop basic business support functions
• Special event budget-
Rental costs- venue and space, equipment, Security costs- public, private security firms, equipment, Productioncosts- entertainment/talent, audio-visual, lighting, sound, utilities, décor, signage, banners, pipe and drape, carpet, Labor costs-staff, greeters registration, ticketing, union contractors, carpenters, electricians, riggers, Marketing costs, Talent costs

• Setting objectives-
Basis of the planning process , Objectives should be clear, concise and measureable , Focus on attendees , Objective impact- site selection, food and beverage, transportation, room layout and setup, program content, People attend meeting for education, networking, and conducting business
• Importance of education -
Return On Investment and expectations of attendees, Technology advances provide additional challenges and opportunities
• Professional certifications-
Continuing Education Units (CEUs)- Lead to certification or licensing, demonstrates level of competency in the profession , Good source of revenue through applications and testing fees, study materials, re-certification, Certified Meeting Professional (CMP)- Most recognized designation in meeting and conventions, administered by Convention Industry Council (CIC)
• Needs analysis-
Method of determining a meetings expectation, Needs or corporation and association differ, Consider- age and gender of past attendees, level of expertise, position within organizations hierarchy, hotel amenities preferred, medical or dietary needs, organization playing, guests of attendees, importance of networking, distance attendees travel, international guest special needs, ADA, educational outcome expected
• S.M.A.R.T-
Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time based
• Request for Proposal (RFP)-
Disseminated to preferred sites, Submit directly to hotels and facilities, submit to local CVB to distribute to properties, submit to destination marketing association international web site , Allows hotels to examine economic impact of meeting and decide to create a bid, Fam trips are another method to promote a destination
• Budgetary concerns-
What is the cost to produce? Who will pay? Will there be a registration fee? What types of food and beverage? What will be served? Will additional cost will be passed on to attendees? What revenue streams are available to produce and promote the meeting?, Step 1- Establish goals- should incorporate the SMART approach, set by the planner, association, corporate mandate, determine financial expectations of event. Three possible financial outcomes- Break even, Profit, Deficit., Step 2- Identify expenses- Indirect cost, fixed cost, variable cost , Step 3- Identify revenue sources- Reg. fees, corporate or association funding, private funding from individuals, exhibitor fees, sponsorships, logo merchandise, advertising fees, government assistance, sales of banner adds or links on official web site, etc.,
• Cost control-
Cost controls are a tool for monitoring budget, Make sure facility knows who has signing authority, Accurately estimate amount of meals ordered. Outsourcing rather than keeping someone on staff full time
• Program implementation-
Program type, content, including track and level, session scheduling, speaker arrangements, refreshments breaks and meal functions, ancillary events, evaluation procedures, General or plenary session, concurrent session, workshop or breakout sessions, roundtable discussion groups, Program content- average attendee 3-6 sessions a day, developed months in advance, must be specifically designed not a one-size-fits-all model, create tracks and levels, speakers can design session special
• Session scheduling-
Timing is critical, variety of activities, don’t double book events over the same period, coordinate trade shows and workshops, allow enough time between sessions for restroom, travel time, checking messages etc.. Refreshment breaks and meal functions
• Speaker Arrangements-
Volunteer speakers- reduce expenses, are knowledgeable, may increase attendance, build relationships, may not adequately prepare, not be a good presenter, may have personal agenda, paid speakers are more reliable. Speaker guidelines- background information, date and location of meeting, special events speaker may attend, date, time, location of room, presentation topic and duration, demographic and estimate of attendees, room set and A/V availability, request for short biography, names or other speakers, remuneration policy, dress code, instructions for preparing final abstracts, instructions/format for handouts, transportation and lodging info.

• Catered events-
One host or sponsor, one bill, same meal, mandatory gratuity (15-22%), can be held at any location, planner locked into facility catering department
1. On premise- Facility with permanent kitchen and function rooms, location: hotel, restaurant, convention center, permanent furniture and equipment. CMP includes: all meals, guest rooms, AV included in one price per person, continual meal breaks, cafeteria style service, special private banquets upon request. Convention centers and stadiums- Concession stands, foodservice generally contracted out, restaurants, special event catering
2. Off premise- Transport food, location: tents, museums, parks, attractions;, equipment and furniture, contract through RFP process. Outsourced- DMC’s. Challenges- transportation (additional coordination), weather- always a challenge and back up plans are required.
Types of functions-
Continental breakfast, full service breakfast, breakfast buffet, refreshment breaks, brunch, buffet lunch, box lunch, full service lunch, receptions, dinner buffets, full service dinner, off site event, theme party
Style of service-
Buffet, attended buffet/cafeteria, combination buffet, plated buffet, action stations, reception, family style/English service, plated/American service, preset, butlered, Russian service, banquet French, cart French, hand service, waiter parade, the wave, mixed styles.
Menus-
seasonal food, ethnic foods, high quality ingredients, fresh ingredients, new/unusual ingredients, safe foods, creative presentations, excellent service, Food consumption patterns- General guidelines ( know the demographics of the group, Menu restrictions- Servers should know the ingredients and preparation method of all food items (allergies, diet and health concerns, religious restrictions)
1. Vegetarians-
Type 1. No meat but will eat poultry and fish, Type 2- “lacto-ovo”- no meats, poultry, or fish; Okay with cheese, milk, eggs, Type 3- “Vegans”- no animal source at all; No by-products, including butter and honey
• Food and beverage attrition-
Attrition clause sets legal obligations for both side and establish liability limits
• Beverage events-
Refreshment breaks- a part of the educational programming, recommend 30 minutes, Receptions, Reasons for a beverage event- socializing and networking, Beer (soft spirit), wine (soft spirit), spirits (hard liquor). Well brands- Less expensive “house” liquor or brand. Call brands- Mid-range price, specially requested. Premium Brands-High-priced, high-quality “top shelf” , Bartenders: 1 per 100 guests standard service; 1 per 50 or 75 guests special service- Barbacks, Cocktail services, Cashiers, Security, Corkage
• Hospitality suites-
Places for attendees to gather outside of established meeting events and times sponsored by: hosting organization, chapter of the organization, exhibitor, non-exhibiting company, allied association, candidate for office in the organization
• Liquor law-
Vary from state to state, Determines times of sales, days of sale, size and bottles sold, Four types of illegal sales- sale to minors, sale to intoxicated persons, sales outside of legal hours, improper liquor license
• Rooms-
Setups are critically important and affects flow of service, food and beverage, and mood of the guests, Includes: order and placement of tables, chairs, décor, equipment, audio-visual, staging, and dance floor, Communicate exactly what to do through BEO’s and room layout software programs
• Service timing-
Cocktail server: 12-16 drinks per tip, 48-64 drinks per hour, Salads: 20-30 minutes, Main course: 30-50 minutes from serving to removal, Dessert: 20-30 minutes, Typical luncheon: 1 ¼ hours, Typical dinner: 2 hours
• Tablescapes-
Centerpiece; do not block sight lines across table, Cover; place setting including flatware, china, glassware, Napery; all table linens including tablecloths, napkins, overlays, table skirting




• Negotiation-
The process by which a meeting planner and a hotel representative (or other supplier) reach an agreement on the terms and conditions that will govern their relationship before, during, and after a meeting, convention, exposition, or event.
1. "Win-Win" vs. the real "Winner"- In a "win-win," both parties feel satisfied about the outcome vs. the real "winner" who is better prepared entering the negotiation and has a good idea of what he or she wants and gets it.
2. "Dates, Rates, and Space"- You can only have two. The planner can get the dates and meeting space he or she wants for a meeting, but may have to give a little on the rate.
3. Strategies
a) Do Your Homework- Develop a “game plan” of the outcomes sought and prioritize your needs and wants. Learn as much about the other side’s position as you can.
b) Keep Your Eyes on the Prize- Don't forget the outcome sought.
c) Leave Something on the Table- It may provide an opportunity to come back later and renew the negotiations.
d) Don't Be the First to Make an Offer- Letting the other person make the first move sets the outside parameters for the negotiation.
e) When there’s a Roadblock, Find a More Creative Path- Thinking "outside the box" often leads to a solution.
f) Bluff, but don’t lie
g) Timing is everything- Remember that time always works against the person who doesn't have it, and that 90% of negotiation usually occurs in the last 10% of the time allocated.
h) Listen, Listen, Listen and Don't Get Emotional- Letting emotions rule a negotiation will cause one to lose sight of what result is important
i) Know about the property- Mix between transient and group business, seasonal fluctuations can be driven by outside factors, arrival and departure patterns, primary source of hotel revenue is sleeping rooms, food and beverage is the second largest source at 25 percent, rack rate is the published room rate, most properties use yield management program methods, guest room to meeting space ratio
j) Flexibility- revise space requirements, release 24 hour holds, different dates, changes in arrival/departure pattern


Chapter 11 Cont.
• Contracts-
An agreement between two or more persons consisting of a promise or mutual promises that the law will enforce, or the performance of which the law recognizes as a duty.
1. The essential elements of a contract are: Offer by one party, Acceptance of the offer as presented, Consideration-Price negotiated and paid for the agreement
2. Offer- Can be terminated in three ways, 1. Expiration of specific time, 2. Expiration of reasonable time, 3. Specific revocation by offeror
3. Hotel or other venue is usually the offeror- Written agreement proposed by hotel after negotiation
4. Meeting sponsor becomes offeree- Typically a counteroffer is made.
5. Acceptance- Acceptance: unequivocal; in same terms as the offer
a. Acceptance must be communicated to the offeror using same means as the offeror used
b. Offer made in writing; acceptance must be in writing
c. Silence on the part of the offeree is never construed as acceptance
d. Offeror cannot impose an agreement on the other party by stating that the contract will be assumed if no response is given by a specified date
6. Consideration
a. Price negotiated and paid for the agreement
b. Generally involves money paid for the other party's promise to perform certain functions
c. Can be exchange of mutual promises (barter)
d. Must be based on whether the act or return promise results in a benefit to the promisor or a detriment to the promisee.
e. Important that both promises be legally enforceable to constitute valid consideration.
7. Oral vs. Written
a. Better to have a written document- Less chance for a misunderstanding
b. Agreements that must be in writing- Contracts for the sale or lease of real estate, Contracts that are not to be performed within one year of agreement
c. A valid written contract must contain- Identity of the parties, Identification of the subject matter, Terms of agreement, Statement of consideration
8. Addenda- Many contracts, especially meeting contracts, contain addenda prepared at the same time or sometimes subsequent to the signing of the contract.
a. In cases where the terms of an addendum differ from those of the contract, the addendum prevails.
9. Types of Contracts- Agreement with the hotel and/or trade show facility, ancillary services, temporary employees, security, audio/visual equipment, destination management, entertainment, outside food and beverage, exhibitor services/decorating, housing bureaus, travel agencies, airlines, rental car companies
• Negotiating contracts
1. Go into the negotiations with a plan, Have an alternative location or provider in mind, Be thorough, Don't assume anything, Be specific, Beware of language that isn't specific, Don't accept something because it's pre-printed, Read the small print, Look for mutuality in the contract's provisions
a. Cancellation payment specified in dollars and based on hotel's lost profit, not lost revenue.
b. Measure lost room revenue sales against normal occupancy for particular time of the year, not against hotel's capacity.
c. Damages should not be payable if hotel resells space.
d. Do not agree to any changes that are not spelled out in contract or later addendum.
2. Contract Provisions- Attrition clauses(Performance or slippage)- Provide for payment of damages to the hotel when meeting sponsors fails to fully utilize the room block specified in the contract

1. Before the Event or Conference-
Desktop uses- Microsoft Office suite, Facebook, Twitter, conference wikis, etc., Third-party software tools for cross-organizational uses and coordination- Scan*Star, Ethereal, and PortMon , Accepted Practices Exchange (APEX) – created Apex OfficeReady for Meeting and Event Planning, a series of templates for Word programs
2. Virtual Site selection and research-
Online Request For Proposals (RFPS), Open bidding on the Web, Virtual tours - Hotel-directed site visit tool, 360-degree views of properties, Industry information portals- CVB Web pages, Mpoint
3. Meeting Industry Information Portals-
Corbin Ball website – http://www.corbinball.com, Convention and Visitor’s Bureau web pages, Destination marketing Association website – http://www.destinationmarketing.org, Meetings Industry Megasite – www.mimegasite.com
4. Marketing and Communication-
Web sites and strategic communications,
5. Really Simple Syndication (RSS)-
A tool where a Web site creates or gathers a feed of information about a specific topic and publishes it as an RSS feed that can be accessed on the site., Constantly provides updated information, Customer then returns to get latest data/updates, Google and Yahoo have free personal services to gather and customize a home page to provide pertinent data to the user
6. Blogging-
An online diary that is posted to the web by an individual, Allows anyone a forum to voice their opinion, A two-way medium that allows readers to respond and further the discussion, Many blogs use RSS feed information, Maintains a dialogue with your peers and customers, Keeps your organization in the front of the minds of potential customers
7. Room Design Software-
Computer-aided Design (CAD) software to graphically enhance room design presentation, Great range in price and design, Can create 3D tour of room setups, Hotels can enhance by providing actual room images to incorporate into the images
8. Selling the Show Floor-
A type of virtual enhancement in the trade show floor selling process, Provides updated layouts, Helps buyer locate an appropriate floor space, Use of colors to help design
9. Online Registration-
Use of Web for pre-registration, Two versions are: IntroNetworks and Leverage Software, Need to carefully integrate data collected online with what is collected manually, Unexpected added expenses- Additional reports
• During the event
1. Setting up the infrastructure- Bandwidth- Carefully determine how much is needed for registration, email kiosks, message centers, speaker access and web conferencing, Wired Versus Wireless Internet Access-Wireless standard is 80211, Digital Recording and Streaming Media- Webcasting and MAP digital, VOIP- Voice Over Internet Protocol, and internet telephone such as skype, Near Field Communications (NFC) and Radio Frequency Identification Device (NFID)- interactive name tags, CEU tracking, Interactive message centers , Lead Retrieval System- Information coded onto a badge for each attendee and then retrieved electronically for use , Audience Response System (ARS)- similar to technology in an audience participation game show, can be tracked online as a survey or poll, can be streamlined into powerpoint presentations
i. Mobile Technologies- Smart Phones (3G & 4G) high speed transmission, Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) – incorporates Internet access, calendars, etc. , Bluetooth – a telecommunications standard allows mobile devices to communicate with each other.
1. Online Evaluations and Surveys- such as zoomertag and questions as to accuracy
2. Media For Marketing Purposes- Extends event past the traditional time boundaries, Provide content to those who could not attend or missed sessions, Issues of cost and delivery: Will the service be free and how will it be accessed?
• Virtual Gatherings- Webinars, Online services that allow audio, data, and streaming content to be delivered over the internet., ReadyTalk or TelePresence Videoconference
2. Second Life- 3D virtual community; users represented by Avatars, Possible to hold virtual meetings in Second Life.
3. Virtual Trade Shows- Digitell’s VirutalU- creation of online space with hypertext links, Can be extend real-life trade shows by 2 or 3 days

• Why go Green?-
The Bottom Line
1. Economic Reasons-
Companies going green are reporting higher gross margins, return on sales, return on assets & stronger cash flow, Switch from bottled water to pitcher water – save money, Reusing badge holders / reducing paperwork.
2. Social reasons-
Businesses should contribute to the welfare of the community, Employees happier & healthier / employee retention increases, More appealing image for potential employees, Recycling helps underprivileged, Triple bottom line – “People, Planet and Profit”
• Opportunities to go green

1. Create standards,
use technology, choose a local destination, reduce, reuse, recycle, volume up, eat local, decorate with nature, use paper wisely, save energy, inform everyone, sources
• Greenwashing-
Any misrepresentation that leads the consumer to believe that their policies and products and environmentally responsible, when their claims are false, misleading or cannot be verified
1. Identifying-
Sin of the hidden trade-off, Sin of no proof, Sin of vagueness, Sin of irrelevance, Sin of fibbing, Sin of the lesser of two evils, Sin of worshipping false labels
2. Preventing-
Be aware, knowledgeable, and not afraid to ask questions, understand the criteria for certification and labels, take a back of the house tour to observe recycling, study checklists
• Green Meeting Standard
s
1. ASTM/APEX Green Meeting standards-
Cover nine areas: Accommodations, Audio Visual, Communication, Exhibits, Food and Beverage, On-site Office, destinations, Meeting Venue, and Transportation., Accredited by ANSI – American National Standards Institute, Worked with Non-Government Organizations (NGO’s) and the Environmental Protection Agency
2. Industry certifications-
Accommodations, catering/food and beverage, décor/trade show rentals, event logistics, printing/promotions/gifts, transportation/tours, venues
• Evaluating Efforts
1. Carbon Footprint Calculator
- Planners can see which destination sites have the least amount of carbon emissions generated by air travel based on points of origin, Planners can then offer options for attendees to offset carbon emissions.
2. City Scorecard-
Ranks cities according to environmental programs administered by local convention and visitor’s bureau., The ability to measure sustainability will be increasingly important.
• Going Green vs. Sustainability
1. Going green-
An action to curb harmful effects on the environment through consumer habits, behavior and lifestyle
2. Sustainability-
More encompassing term that includes implementing and executing a plan to save resources while improving performance.



International MEEC Considerations
1. Lessons to be learned from overseas-
Excellence of infrastructure- public transportation and access, Logistics- Specialized departments for exhibitors, simplified shipping and storage , Support Organizations- Government agencies and trade promotion organization involvement
2. Methods of Exhibiting-
As part of government-sponsored pavilions, Under auspices of another company, Joint ventures between companies, “Going it alone”: On their own
3. Terminology-
Different in other parts of the world like in Germany; Ausstellung = Consumer Show, Congress = Meeting or Convention, Gesellschaft = Company or Society , GMBH = Limited Liability Company, Messe = Trade Fair, Messegelande = Fair site, PLC = Public Limited Company, Trade Exhibition = Trade Show
4. Contractual and Procedural Issue-
Labor Rule Differences , Set-Up or logistical contract differences, Customs clearance- Freight Forwarder, duty/taxes, carnet or trade fair bond
5. Understand business protocol and cultural differences with other countries-
Verbal and physical greetings, hand gestures, eye contact, Use of first/last names, Clothing styles, Hospitality customs (food and beverage), Gift giving – gift accepting, Style of physical contact, Business and corporate titles, Class/rank
7. Examples of cultural protocol differences -
Be very careful regarding what your exhibit staff wears. What is the customary business dress for the host country? What colors should not be worn? For example, avoid wearing yellow in Singapore; it is the color worn at funerals. At a business meeting in Saudi Arabia, coffee is often served toward the end of the meeting as an indication that the meeting is about to end. Also, in most Arabic countries, the left hand is considered dirty, so you should never eat or accept anything with this hand. Be sure when giving gifts or promotional materials that you do so with the right hand. When giving away gifts in Switzerland, avoid giving away knives—it is considered bad luck. If a Japanese person gives you a gift, do not throw away the wrapping or tear it up. It is considered part of the gift. Aside from handshakes, there is no public contact between the sexes in many countries. Do not kiss or hug a person of the opposite sex in public—even if it is your spouse. On the other hand, in some countries contact is permitted between people of the same sex. Men may hold hands with men and even walk with arms around each other; this is interpreted as nothing but friendship.Westerners frequently find Arabic names confusing. The best solution is to request the names of anyone you meet, speak to, or correspond with. Find out their full names (for correspondence) as well as how they are to be addressed in person.
8. Understand trade show differences-
Hospitality events held on show floor, Nonexistent height restrictions, Smokin, Lack of lead retrieval systems, Longer hours, Systems- Metric, Electric Voltages, video format
9. Determining whether to participate-
Understand objectives and know the audience, Difference between different fairs and expositions in the industry, Determine method to measure Return on Investment (ROI), Costs, Cultural consequences
, Personnel resources of the company to support effort , Type of participation – method of exhibiting, identify and analyze the requirements, Support of senior management, Know the logistic requirements
• Trade fair certification
1. Program of U.S Department of Commerce-
Promotes exports of U.S. products and services, Endorses show organizers who manage and organize overseas events, Program helps to attract more exhibitors, Promotes the event, Requirements: U.S pavilion or attract 10 other U.S companies, Have a U.S agent or office, Event has taken place before

• The Annual Conference of the American Small Animal Association(ASAA)
1. Director of Meetings for ASAA – Sue Richardson (full-time employee)
2. Setting Goals-
Review previous conferences and evaluations, Read mission statement of association, Focus on ROI (Return on Investment, Create operational and educational objectives
3. Budget-
Look at past meeting sponsor, Research/Hire an ESC (Exposition Services Contractor), Research/Hire an Audiovisual (AV) Company, Give logistics and specs to AV and ESC bidders, Transportation, Speakers, Temporary staff, Security, Insurance, Special services
4. Income-
Registration fees- Categories/tiers of registration, exhibitors registration fee included in their fees, speakers usually pay reduced registration, Exhibitor rentals and fees, Rebate from hotel rooms, transportation, ESC, Income from SAPDC Certification Program (educational opportunity linked to conference, Speakers, Temporary staff
5. Request For Proposal (RFP)-
List of cities under consideration, Preferred dates, Detailed grid of meeting room needs, Special requests/needs, Food & Beverage needs, detailed history grid, Detailed questionnaire (policies, fees, availability, etc.), sent to Destination Marketing Organization (DMO) or Convention and Visitors’ Bureau (CVB) for distribution.
6. First Site inspection
- Day One- Tour city and available hotels, meet with DMC, tour possible special sites for events, brief tour of convention center, sample restaurant food and services at the first possible headquarters hotel, view setup and meeting spaces, Day Two- More detailed tour of convention center, meet with DMC, discuss marketing options with facilities, test other possible sites for special events, tour other possible hotels, check into second possible headquarters hotel, sample food and tour facilities of second hotel, Day three- Tour possible entertainment/event locations, have three day site inspection at the second possible host city
7. Second site inspection (3 days)
- Finalize non-host properties, Select off-site venues, Select the DMC, Select transportation company, Begin contract negotiations, Meet with key personnel- CSM, Sales and Catering managers, ESC contact
8. Marketing committee-
Meet with host city marketers, Meet with in-house marketers, Determine which marketing tools will be used to market the events, Finalize meeting program, Create press releases, Divide responsibilities among the committee
9. Creation of the program-
Decide meeting theme, Work out agenda, Create sub-committees for specific details, Review timeline, Coordinate final speakers, Coordinate exhibitor needs, Create exhibitor prospectus
10. Partnerships
- Housing Bureau, Local DMC, speakers’ Bureau, Online Registration Company, Sponsors, The ESV and AV Company
11. One year to 6 month countdown-
Use meeting timeline, Proofread marketing pieces and program, Finalize sponsor, Finalize and confirm speakers, Finalize floor plans of exhibition space, Finalize details of receptions and dinners, Detail signage and banners
12. 6 month countdown -
Issue press releases, Early registrations, Finalize actual meeting room designations, Finalize menus of receptions and dinners, Complete arrangements for special events, Work with DMC to finalize transportation, Ordering of signage
13. 5 to 3 month countdown-
Reminders to speakers, Create work schedule for staff, Order badges, Closely monitor registration, Adjust hotel blocks of rooms according to registration, Coordinate last-minute changes from convention center
14. 2 month countdown-
Trip to host city- Walk through of properties, review with catering managers, review security, visit with ESC and AV contracts, meet with DMC representatives, meet with special events coordinators, review all staging and timing arrangements
15. Pre-meeting activities-
Continue weekly monitoring of registration, Final walk-throughs, Pre-con meeting of all concerned parties, Monitor setup of activities, On-site troubleshooting, Rehearsing of events, Conduct press conferences
16. Meeting day activities-
Work behind the scenes, Ensure setup is correct, Conduct daily bill reviews, Track reservations against
actual attendance, Coordinate guest lists, Troubleshoot last-minute problems (e.g., AV failure), Work with exhibitor coordinators
17. After the meeting-
Conduct post-con meeting, Acknowledge work of all team members, Evaluate feedback from attendees, Research and write final report of convention to company executive in charge, Compare numbers with last year’s convention/meeting
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