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The martyrdom of GOMBURZA was a turning point in the history
Transcript of The martyrdom of GOMBURZA was a turning point in the history
What is Propaganda?
Propaganda is a form of communication aimed towards influencing the attitude of the community toward some cause or position by presenting only one side of an argument. Propaganda statements may be partly false and partly true. Propaganda is usually repeated and dispersed over a wide variety of media in order to create the chosen result in audience attitudes.
As opposed to impartially providing information, propaganda, in its most basic sense, presents information primarily to influence an audience.
The Propaganda Movement and its Objectives
The Propaganda Movement was a literary and cultural organization formed in 1872 by Filipino émigrés who had settled in Europe. Composed of Filipino liberals exiled in 1872 and students attending Europe's universities, the organization aimed to increase Spanish awareness of the needs of its colony, the Philippines.
The Filipino Propagandist
The martyrdom of GOMBURZA was a turning point in the history of the Philippines.
In February 17, 1872, Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jocinto Zamora (Gomburza), all Filipino priest, was executed by the Spanish colonizers on charges of subversion. The charges against Fathers Gomez, Burgos and Zamora was their alleged complicity in the uprising of workers at the Cavite Naval Yard. The death of Gomburza awakened strong feelings of anger and resentment among the Filipinos. They questioned Spanish authorities and demanded reforms. The martyrdom of the three priests apparently helped to inspire the organization of the Propaganda Movement, which aimed to seek reforms and inform Spain of the abuses of its colonial government. This sparks the beginning of the Propaganda Movement and later on led to the Philippine Revolution against Spain.
Goals Specifically, the Propagandists aims were:
•Representation of the Philippines in the Cortes Generales, the Spanish parliament;
•Legalization of Spanish and Filipino equality;
•Recognition of the Philippines as a province of Spain;
•Secularization of Philippine parishes;
•Recognition of human rights
•Secularization of the clergy;
•Creation of a Public school (government funded)public school system independent of the friars;
•Abolition of the polo (labor service) and vandala (forced sale of local products to the government).
•Guarantee of basic freedoms of of speech|speech and Freedom of association.
•Equal opportunity for Filipinos and Spanish to enter government service;
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Jose Ma. Panganiban
Isabelo delos Reyes
Triumvirate of the Propaganda Movement (Rizal, Lopez-Jaena and Del Pilar)
A triumvirate (from Latin, "triumvirātus") is a political regime dominated by three powerful individuals, each a triumvir (pl. triumviri). The arrangement can be formal or informal, and though the three are usually equal on paper, in reality this is rarely the case. The term can also be used to describe a state with three different military leaders who all claim to be the sole leader.
Jose Rizal: The Novelist
•The most highly educated among the Filipino Propagandist
•Sa aking mga kabata
•A la Juventud Filipina or To the Filipino Youth
•El Consejo delos Dioses
•Noli Me Tangere
Graciano Lopez-Jaena: The Orator
•Born on December 18, 1856 in Jaro, Iloilo
•Died of tuberculosis on January 20, 1896 in Barcelona, Spain
Marcelo H. Del Pilar: The Journalist
•Born in Bulakan, Bulakan on August 30, 1850
•Lawyer, Journalist and Political Analyst
•Dasalan at Tuksuhan
•Died on July 4, 1896
The La Solidaridad
•The organ of the patriotic society established by Filipino expatriates in Barcelona.
•Associacion La Solidaridad
President: Galiciano Apacible
Vice-President: Graciano Lopez-Jaena
Secretary: Manuel Sta. Maria
Treasurer: Mariano Ponce
Accountant: Jose Ma. Panganiban
Honorary President: Jose Rizal
The aims of this fortnightly organ of the Philippine opinion were the following:
•To work peacefully for political and social reforms;
•To portray the deplorable conditions of the Philippines and for Spain to remedy them;
•To oppose the evil forces of reaction and medievalism;
•To advocate liberal ideas and progress; and
•To champion the legitimate aspirations of the Filipino people to life, democracy, and happiness.
Members and Pen Names
Marcelo H. Del Pilar – Plaridel
Jose Rizal – Laon Laan/Dimasalang
Mariano Ponce – Kalipulako or Tikbalang
Antonio Luna – Taga-Ilog
Jose Ma. Panganiban – Jomapa
Graciano Lopez Jaena
Antonio Maria Regidor
Isabelo de los Reyes
Eduardo de Lete
Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt (Austrian ethnologist)
Dr. Miguel Morayta Sagrario (Spanish historian, university professor and statesman)
Masonry and the Propaganda Movement
•Played a very crucial role in the Propaganda Movement.
•Graciano Lopez-Jaena founded lodge Revolucion on April 1, 1889, in Barcelona, Spain, being its Worshipful Master
•Lodge La Solidaridad in Madrid, Spain – Founded by Marcelo H. Del Pilar with the assistance of Julio Llorante as its Worshipful Master
•Lodge Nilad was organized on January 6, 1891 recognized a year later by the Gran Oriente Espanol, the mother lodge.
•Filipino Masonic lodges both in Spain and Philippines became centers of Propaganda activities.
•Established in Madrid on January 12, 1889
President – Don Miguel Morayta
Vice-President – Gen. Felipe de la Corte
Secretary – Dominador Gomez
Rizal’s Break with Del Pilar
•Rizal's idealism was something unacceptable to his colleagues resulting to shift their loyalty to Del Pilar
•Rizal objected to the editorial policy of Del Pilar as it ran counter to his political views
•They decided to elect a Responsible to direct the affairs of Filipino community and at the same time, agree on the editorial policy of the La Solidaridad.
•Rizalistas VS Pilaristas
•Rizal was elected because of Ponce’s move
The La Liga Filipina
•The Philippine League
•The constitution of the league was drafted by Rizal with the help of Jose Ma. Basa in HongKong, which he plans to establish in the Philippines upon his return
•Unus Instar Omnium or One Like All
La Liga sought to achieve the following aims and objectives:
The unification of the whole archipelago into vigorous, compact body;
Mutual protection in every want and necessity;
Defense againsts all forms of violence and injustice;
Stimulation of instruction, agriculture, and commerce; and
The undertaking of study and application of reforms.
Three Levels of organizational councils:
•July 3, 1892, Rizal founded the La Liga Filipina on Calle Ilaya, Tondo in the home of Doroteo Ongjuco. The elected officers were the Following:
President – Ambrosio Salvador
Fiscal – Agustin de la Rosa
Treasurer – Bonifacio Arevalo
Secretary – Deodato Arellano
•Three days after the founding of La Liga, Rizal was arrested by order of Governor General Despujol and deported to Dapitan on July 15, 1892
•The La Liga split into two branches. The rightist wing called Cuerpos de Compromisarios and the Leftist wing came to be called as the Katipunan
The Failure of the Propaganda Movement
1.Spain was very much preoccupied with her own internal problems and did not have time to consider the colonial problems aired by the propagandists through the La Solidaridad.
2.The friars countered all attacks of the reformist through their newspaper in the Philippines entitled La Politica de Espana en Filipinas.
3.Petty quarrels among the reformist made them disunited.
4.Lack of finances to support the propaganda activities in Europe led to the failure of the movement.
(as first published)
Sa Aking Mga Kabatà
Kapagka ang baya'y sadyáng umiibig
Sa kanyáng salitáng kaloob ng langit,
Sanglang kalayaan nasa ring masapit
Katulad ng ibong nasa himpapawid.
Pagka't ang salita'y isang kahatulan
Sa bayan, sa nayo't mga kaharián,
At ang isáng tao'y katulad, kabagay
Ng alin mang likha noong kalayaán.
Ang hindi magmahal sa kanyang salitâ
Mahigit sa hayop at malansáng isdâ,
Kayâ ang marapat pagyamaning kusà
Na tulad sa ináng tunay na nagpalà.
Ang wikang Tagalog tulad din sa Latin
Sa Inglés, Kastilà at salitang anghel,
Sapagka't ang Poong maalam tumingín
Ang siyang naggawad, nagbigay sa atin.
Ang salita nati'y huwad din sa iba
Na may alfabeto at sariling letra,
Na kaya nawalá'y dinatnan ng sigwâ
Ang lunday sa lawà noóng dakong una.
"Sa Aking Mga Kabatà" (English: To my Fellow Youth)
is a poem about the love of one's native language written
in Tagalog. It is widely attributed to the Filipino national hero José Rizal, who supposedly wrote it in 1869 at the age of seven.
Sa aking mga kabata
This Spanish poem was written by Filipino national hero Jose Rizal when he was only 18 years old. It won him first prize in a competition at the University of Santo Tomas.
A LA JUVENTUD FILIPINA
(PRIMER PREMIO, UNA PLUMA DE PLATA, EN CERTAMEN DEL "LICEO
ARTÍSTICO-LITERARIO" DE MANILA, 1879)
¡Alza tu tersa frente,
juventud filipina, en este día!
tu rica gallardía,
bella esperanza de la patria mía!
Vuela, genio grandioso,
y les infunde noble pensamiento,
que lance vigoroso,
más rápido que el viento,
su mente virgen al glorioso asiento.
Baja, con la luz grata
de las artes y ciencias, a la arena,
juventud, y desata
la pesada cadena
que tu genio poético encadena.
Ve que en la ardiente zona
do moraron las sombras, el hispano
con pía y sabia mano,
ofrece al hijo de este suelo indiano.
Tú, que buscando subes,
en alas de tu rica fantasía,
del Olimpo en las nubes
más sabrosa que néctar y ambrosía.
Tú, de celeste acento,
melodioso rival de filomena,
que en variado concento
en la noche serena
disipas del mortal la amarga pena;
Tú, que la pena dura
animas al impulso de tu mente,
y la memoria pura
del genio refulgente
eternizas, con genio prepotente;
Y tú, que el vario encanto
de Febo, amado del divino Apeles,
y de Natura el manto,
con mágicos pinceles
trasladar al sencillo lienzo sueles;
¡Corred! que sacra llama
del genio el lauro coronar espera,
esparciendo la Fama
con trompa pregonera
el nombre del mortal por la ancha esfera.
¡Día, día felice,
Filipinas gentil, para tu suelo!
Al Potente bendice,
que con amante anhelo
la ventura te envía y el consuelo.
A La Juventud Filipina ni Jose Rizal
El Consejo de los Dioses
El Consejo de los Dioses is a play written in Spanish by Filipino writer and national hero José Rizal, first published in 1880 in Manila by the Liceo Artistico Literario de Manila in 1880, and later by La Solidaridad in 1883.
Noli Me Tangere
Noli Me Tángere (Touch me Not / Don't touch me) is a novel written by José Rizal, the national hero of the Philippines, during the colonization of the country by Spain to expose the inequities of the Spanish Catholic priests and the ruling government.
El Filibusterismo (lit. Spanish for "The Filibustering", also known by its English alternate title The Reign of Greed, is the second novel written by Philippine national hero José Rizal. It is the sequel to Noli Me Tá,ngere and, like the first book, was written in Spanish. It was first published in 1891 in Ghent, Belgium.
Sa makabagong pagbabaybay
Ang mga utos nang Prayle ay sampu:
Ang nauna: Sambahin mo ang Prayle na lalo sa lahat.
Ang ikalaua: Huwag kang magpapahamak o manumba ng ngalang deretsos.
Ang ikatlo: Manalangin ka sa Prayle Linggo man at piyesta.
Ang ikapat: Isanla mo ang katauhan mo sa pagpapalibing sa ama't ina,
Ang ikalima: Huwag kang mamamatay kung wala pang salaping panlibing.
Ang ikanim: Huwag kang makiapid sa kanyang asawa.
Ang ikapito: Huwag kang makinakaw.
Anh ikaualo: Huwag mo silang pagbibintangan, kahit ka masinungalingan.
Ang ikasiyam: Huwag mong ipagkait ang iyong asawa.
Ang ikapulo: Huwag mong itangi ang iyong ari.
Itong sampong utos ng Prayle'y dalawa ang kinauuwian.
Ang isa: Sambahin mo ang Prayle lalo sa lahat.
Ang ikalawa: Ihain mo naman sa kaniya ang puri mo't kayamanan. Siya nawa.
Ang mga kabuhungang asal, ang pangala'y tontogales ay tatlo.
Igalang mo ……………
Katakutan mo………… Ang Prayle
At pagmanuhan mo …..
Graciano Lopez Jaena's
introduces the stereotypical Spanish friar who uses religion as atool for oppressing others in order to satiate his appetite for food, money and women. This friar stereotype later became thesymbol of the Spanish regime in thePhilippines.