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Social Psychology

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Felia Grier

on 31 October 2013

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Transcript of Social Psychology

Social Psychology
Social Influence
The process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual.
Changing one's own behavior to match that of other people.
Chapter 12
Felia Grier
Ricketa Johnson
Elentee Owens
29 October 2013
Social Psychology is the scientific study of how a person's behavior,thoughts, and feelings are influenced by real,imagined, or implied presence of others.
Social Influence
Social Cognition
Social Interaction
Liking and Loving
Aggression and Pro social Behavior
Anatomy of a Cult
branch of psychology that studies the habits of consumers in the market place.
Foot-In-The-Door Technique
asking for a small commitment and then asking for a bigger commitment.
Door-In-The-Face Technique
asking for a large commitment and being refused and then asking for a smaller commitment.
Low ball Technique
getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of the commitment.
Norm of Reciprocity
assumption that if someone does something for a person, that person should do something for the other in return.
That's Not-All Technique
a sales technique in which the persuader makes an offer and then adds something extra to make the offer look better before the target person can make a decision.
changing one's behavior at the command of an authority figure.
Group Polarization
the tendency for members involved in a group discussion to take somewhat more extreme positions and suggest riskier actions when compared to individuals who have not participated in a group discussion.
Social Facilitation
the tendency for the presence of other people to have a positive impact on the performance of an easy task.
Social Impairment
the tendency for the presence of other people to have a negative impact on the performance of a difficult task.
Social Loafing
the tendency for people to put less effort into a simple task when working with others on that task.
Social Cognition: Attitudes, Impression Formation, and Attribution
Social Cognition
focuses on the ways in which people think about other people and how cognition's influence behavior toward those other people.
a tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea, or situation.
The ABC Model of Attitudes
Affective Component of an Attitude
is the way a person feels toward the object, person, or situation.
Behavior Component of an Attitude
is the action that a person takes in regard to the person, object, or situation.
Cognitive Component of an Attitude
is the way a person thinks about himself, an object, or a situation.
Attitude Formation
is the result of a number of different influences with only one thing in common: They are all forms of learning.
Direct Contact
one way in which attitudes are formed is by direct contact with the person, idea, situation, or object that is the focus of the attitude.
Direct Instruction
another way attitudes are formed is through direct instruction, either by parents or some other individual.
Interaction With Others
attitudes are formed because the person is around other people with that attitude.
Vicarious Conditioning
learned through the observation of others people's actions and reactions to various objects, people, or situations.
Attitude Change: The Art of Persuasion
Persuasion: the process by which one person tries to change the belief, opinion, position, or course of action of another person through argument, pleading, or explanation
the communicator is the person delivering the message.
The actual message should be clear and well organized. It's more effective if the argument is presented to an audience that hasn't yet committed to a definite yes or no.
Target Audience
The characteristics of the people who are the intended target of the message of persuasion are also important in determining the effectiveness of the message.
Cognitive Dissonance
sense of discomfort of distress that occurs when a person's behavior does not correspond to that person's attitudes.
Change their conflicting behavior to make it match their attitude.
Change their current conflicting cognition to justify their behavior.
Due to the cost of tuition for a semester at Howard being cheaper than Harvard, the student chose to save money and attend Howard University.
Form new cognition to justify their behavior.
Impression Formation
the forming of the first knowledge that a person has concerning another person.
Social Cognition
the mental process that people use to make sense of the social world around them.
Social Categorization
the assignment of a person one has just met to a category based on characteristics the new person has in common with other people with whom one had experience in the past.
a set of characteristics that people believe is shared by all members of a particular social category.
Implicit Personality Theory
sets of assumptions about how different types of people, personality traits, and actions are related to each other.
the process of explaining one's own behavior and the behavior of others.
Attribution Theory
a way of not only explaining why things happen but also why people choose the particular explanations of behavior they do.
Situational Cause
cause of behavior attributed to external factors.
Dispositional Cause
cause of behavior attributed to internal factors.
Fundamental Attribution Error
the tendency to overestimate the influence of internal factors in determining behavior while underestimating situational factors.
Social Interaction: Prejudice and Aggression
negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group
treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belong
Types of Prejudice and Discrimination
social groups with whom a person identifies; "us"
social groups with whom a person does not identify; "them"
is a person or a group, typically a member or members of an out-group, who serves as the target for the frustrations and negative emotions of members of in the in-group
Social Cognitive Theory
referring to the use of cognitive processes in relation to the understanding the social world
Social Identity Theory
theory in which the formation of a person's identity within a particular social group is explained by social categorization, social identity, and social comparison
Social Identity
the part of the self-concept including one's view of self as a member of a particular social category
Social Comparison
the comparison of oneself to others in ways that raise one's self-esteem
Stereotype Vulnerability
the effect that people's awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
the tendency of one's expectations to affect one's behavior in such a way as to make the expectations more likely to occur
Overcoming Prejudice
The best weapon against prejudice is education: learning about people who are different from you in many ways
Liking and Loving: Interpersonal Attraction
Interpersonal Attraction
liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person
Rules of A Attractiveness
physical or geographical nearness
Physical Attractiveness
when people think about what attract them to others
Birds of a Feather
the more people find they have in common with others such as attitudes, beliefs and interests. The more they tend to be attracted to those others
Reciprocity of Liking
tendency of people to like other people who like them in return
Love is a Triangle: Robert Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love
outlined he determined were the three main components of love and the different types of love that combinations of these three components can produce
refers to the feelings of closeness that one has for another or the sense of having close emotional ties to another
refers to the emotional and sexual arousal a person feels toward the other person
involves the decisions one makes about a relationship
Aggression and Prosocial Behavior
behavior intended to hurt or destroy another person.
Social Role
the pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is in a particular social position.
Prosocial Behavior
socially desirable behavior that benefits others rather than bring harm to them.
realizing that there is a situation that might be an emergency.
Defining an Emergency
interpreting the cues as signaling an emergency.
Taking Responsibility
personally assuming the responsibility to act.
Planning a Course of Action
deciding how to help and what skills might be needed.
Taking Action
actually helping.
helping someone in trouble with no expectation of reward and often without fear for one's own safety.
Bystander Effect
referring to the effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not help, with help becoming less likely as the number of bystanders increases.
Diffusion of Responsibility
occurring when a person fails to make to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility.
Anatomy of a Cult
Cult literally refers to any group of people with a particular religious of philosophical set of beliefs and identity.
Social Psychology
What Is Social Psychology?
occurs when people change their behavior as a result of another person or group asking or directing them to change.
Solomon Asch (1951) Conducted the first of his classic studies on conformity. He gather seven people in a darkened room. They were then told that the experiment was based off visual judgement. They then were shown two separate white cards. The first card had one single line and the second card displayed three lines. The objective was to see which line based off the single line was the closest in length. There was only one real participant and the rest were confederates whom were told to choose the incorrect answer to see if they'd conform with the other's incorrect answer based off majority.
Asch's Classic Study on Conformity
Getting the answer incorrect.
Who would you sit by?
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