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Latin American Revolution
Transcript of Latin American Revolution
Maya, Aztec, Inca
European Colonization, 1500s
Spain, Portugal, France
American Revolution, 1776
French Revolution and Enlightenment, 1789
Napoleon’s conquests within Europe, 1800s Background Latin American Independence Movements 1750-1914:
An Age of Revolutions Saint Domingue, now known as Haiti
Western third of island of Hispanola in Caribbean Sea.
Plantation slavery, sugar French colonies: Revolution in Haiti (too-SAN loo-vair-TOOR)
Former slave, self-educated.
Untrained in military and political matters, but became a skilled general and diplomat.
Allegedly got name (“opening” in French) from being able to find openings in enemy lines.
Took leadership of a slave revolt that broke out in 1791.
100,000 slaves in revolt. Toussaint L’Ouverture By 1801, L’Ouverture moved into Spanish Santo Domingo (the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispanola), took control of territory and freed slaves.
In January 1802, French troops landed.
Toussaint agreed to an end of fighting if the French would end slavery
French accused him of planning another uprising.
Sent him to a prison in the French Alps.
He died 10 months later, April 1803. Toussaint’s general.
Took up the fight.
Jan 1, 1804 - declared an independent country.
First black colony to free itself from European control.
He called it Haiti, “mountainous land,” in the language of the native Arawak inhabitants.
Became first emperor of Haiti; later assassinated in a revolt.
1820: Haiti became an independent republic Jean-Jacques Dessalines Peninsulares – born in Spain. Pure bred (Threw science in there :P)
held highest offices
Creoles - Spaniards born in Latin America
officers in army, but not in government
Mestizos - mixed European and Indian
Mulattoes - mixed European and African Indians Latin American social classes Napoleon invaded Spain in 1808.
Removed Spain’s King Ferdinand VII and made Joseph (His brother).
Creoles found this as reasoning for revolution.
1810 rebellion across Latin America.
1814 Napoleon was defeated and Ferdinand returned to power, but creoles just didn’t stop. European Background: Napoleon Wealthy Venezuelan creole.
“The Liberator” Simon Bolivar Venezuela declared independence, 1811.
Bolivar’s armies unsuccessful at first.
1819: Bolivar marched armies over Andes into today’s Colombia, defeated Spanish army.
1821: Venezuelan independence.
Marched north to Ecuador to meet Jose de San Martin. Venezuelan Independence, 1821 Jose de San Martin Argentina declared independence in 1816.
San Martin led army across Andes to Chile, joined by Bernardo O’Higgins, and freed Chile.
Ecuador, 1822: San Martin met with Bolivar to decide how to remove remaining Spanish forces in Lima, Peru.
San Martin sailed for Europe and died on French soil.
Dec 9, 1824, Bolivar defeated Spanish at Battle of Ayacucho. Argentinean Independence Gran Colombia, 1820-1830 Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 divided the Atlantic between Spain and Portugal.
Portugal was mostly focused on routes to Asia in the 15th and 16th centuries. In 1807, Napoleon marched on Iberian peninsula, forcing Portuguese royal family of King John VI to escape to Brazil, Portugal’s largest colony.
From 1807 to 1815, Brazil was center of Portuguese empire. Brazilian Independence & Napoleon With defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Portugal wanted Brazil to become a colony again.
By 1822, creoles demanding independence signed a petition asking Portugal’s prince, Dom Pedro, to rule Brazil.
On Sept 7, 1822, Dom Pedro agreed, and declared Brazil’s independence
Emperor Pedro I, to unify various elements of Brazil.
Pedro’s political and personal problems led to a decline in his popularity.
1889, Brazilians overthrew Pedro’s successor and declared their country a republic. Breakdown of original nations and groups:
an original union between Bolivia and Peru
United Provinces of Central America
Instability of internal politics
Bolivia experienced 60 revolts and coups.
Venezuela experienced 52 revolts and coups
Liberals - free trade, representative govt, federal government system
Conservatives - protect church and upper classes
controlled most regimes between 1830 and 1870.
Independence movements and new governments run by Creoles
Spanish administrators had excluded Creoles from political leadership, so few leaders could actually run a government. Period of Consolidation, 1825-1850 By 1841, United Provinces of Central America had split into republics of El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Guatemala and Honduras.
Conservative clergy and wealthy landowners resisted liberal, democratic reforms.
Inability to agree to terms of a canal cost it much-needed revenue. Dictators in Venezuela, Mexico, Colombia
Caudillo = strongman leader
Relied on force
outlawed opposition, regulated schools and newspapers
used jails, police and firing squads
sometimes supported liberal policies
Liberal governments return to power
Even strongmen often supported “liberal” policies
regular elections, but with restricted voting rights (oligarchic democracies) Late 19th century Trends:
Strongman Rule, Liberalism, commercial development Jose Maria Morelos 1820 revolution in Spain put a liberal government in power.
Mexican creoles united against Spain.
1824: Establishment of the Mexican Republic. Mexican Independence, 1821 Mexico’s congress began to write a constitution. The creoles were not agreeing upon it. They believed in more power in the state government than the central government. So in 1824 they came up with a compromise and Mexico became a republic. A two party system. Guadalupe Victoria, a follower of Hidalgo and Morelos, became the first president. A caudillo, strong arm ruler.
Fought for independence from Spain in 1821 and again in 1829 when Spain tried to reconquer Mexico.
Between 1833 and 1855, president four times
switched sides to keep himself in power
Santa Anna was Emperor of the largest empire in world history, stretching from southern Mexico through Texas, all of what is now the US southwest, California and some of Oregon. In other words he had a big backyard.
Was Emperor for a short time – until Texas defeated Mexico in its War of Independence, but never really had control of his empire Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Poor, orphaned Zapotec Indian; law degree and local governor.
La Reforma: reform movement
redistribution of land, separation of church and state, education
Santa Anna sent him into exile.
Set up a liberal government, but plagued by conservative rebels. Benito Juarez Political/Social:
Continued battles between liberals, conservatives and the military over how to best rule.
Tensions between articulate political forces and the separate masses.
Unable to free itself from dependence on Western-controlled economic patterns.
Distinct cultural entity
combination of Western styles and values plus its racial diversity, colonial past, and social structure of a semi-colonial economy. Results of Latin American Independence Movements Conservative rebels plotted with France to reconquer Mexico.
Napoleon III sent armies to Mexico.
Cinco de Mayo, 1862:
Zaragoza won the Battle of Puebla against the French, but the French won the war.
Napoleon III appointed a relative, Austrian archduke Maximilian, as emperor of Mexico.
Juarez resisted, US sent troops to Mexico - French gave up in 1867.
Juarez continued reforms. French Rule Mid-1870s, new caudillo.
Indian who rose up through the ranks.
Supported by Indians, small landowners and military.
“Order and progress,” but no liberty. Porfirio Diaz, 1870s-1911 Francisco “Pancho” Villa - Robin-Hood policy
Emiliano Zapata - “Tierra y libertad”
Francisco Madero - appointed President, but resigned and was murdered.
General Victoriano Huerta took presidency.
Villa and Zapata supported Venustiano Carranza, overthrew Huerta.
Carranza murdered Zapata.
1917, new constitution (in use today).
Carranza otherthrown by Alvaro Obregon. Mexican Revolution (against Diaz) Latin American Independence Movements, 18th & 19th C. Haitian Revolution Spanish Colonies: Revolutions
against Spanish Rule Venezuelan
Independence Argentinian Independence Portuguese Rule Power to the people picture THE
Independence of Mexico A village priest, believed
in Enlightenment ideals.
1810, called for revolution.
Grito de Dolores (call for revolution)
Hidalgo’s Indian and mestizo followers marched to Mexico City.
Spanish army and creoles acted against Hidalgo and defeated him in 1811. Miguel Hidalgo Gran Colombia, 1820-1830 Bolivar’s vision of a united South America.
Present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Panama.
Short-lived due to many disagreements.
Bolivar resigned in 1828.
In 1830, Bolivar’s Gran Colombia divided into Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela.
Panama later split from Colombia with US assistance, 1903. United Provinces of Central America Several other Central American states declared their independence from both Spain and Mexico to create the United Provinces of Central America. Simple man.
Born in Argentina, spent time in Spain as military officer. Took leadership after Hidalgo’s defeat.
Defeated by creoles. Bell Ringer What do you think were the causes of Revolution? Final Question: How is the Latin American Revolution Similar to the French Revolution?