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Copy of Chapter 1: Using Geography Skills

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Michael Sbalchiero

on 24 August 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Chapter 1: Using Geography Skills

Understanding Days and Nights
Rotation of Earth causes days and nights
side facing sun has daylight
each rotation is 24 hours and makes our days
Orbit of Earth around Sun gives us years
each orbit takes slightly more than 1 year
Tilt of Earth effects length of days and temperature
creates seasons by exposing certain parts of the Earth to more direct sunlight
Divides the Earth into regions according to the amount of sunlight they receive
Higher the latitude (greater distance from equator), the less direct sunlight is received, creating cooler climates
Lower the latitude, the more direct sunlight is received, creating warmer climates
Latitude line that circles the Earth halfway between the North and South Poles
Tropic of Cancer
(23.5°N) the northern boundary of the tropics
Summer solstice occurs as sun shines above on June 21 or 22
Tropic of Capricorn
(23.5°S) the southern boundary of the tropics
Winter solstice occurs as sun shines directly above on December 21 or 22
Low latitudes
The region between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn
Regions are almost always hot
High Latitudes
Regions between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole and the Antarctic Circle and the South Pole
Very cold regions
Middle Latitudes
Regions between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle
Have four seasons that last about 3 months each
The Latitudes
Why do people study Geography?
To learn about the Earth and its people, its plants, and its animals that inhabit it
The Five Themes of Geography
Location of a place is determined in two ways.
1) Absolute Location
determined by latitude and longitude
Ex: Jefferson City is located at 38 degrees North and 93 degrees West
2) Relative location
used to explain where a place is by describing something near it
Ex: Jefferson City is west of St. Louis or Missouri is south of Iowa.
1) Location
What is a place like? What are the people like?
A place is characterized by two types of features
1) Human features
what are the people like?
religions, jobs, traditions, government, entertainment, population
2) Physical features
what is the environment like?
climate, landforms, bodies of water, etc.
ex: Jefferson City is very hilly, has the Missouri River, has four seasons
how do people affect their environment? how does the environment affect the people?
wherever people have lived or traveled, they have affected the environment
does the climate affect farming
how do they use landforms or bodies of water to help them
how do landforms or climate limit what they can do
changes they make to the environment to help them
ex: use rivers to help irrigate their farmland
Human-Environment Interaction
how do people, goods, and ideas move from one place to another?
use of rivers, oceans, and lakes to transport goods
what technology exists for people to communicate
are there a lot of people migrating to the area
how do people travel
a way of comparing places by similar characteristics that they share
some places are part of physical region
Nile Valley Region - places that lie on either side of the Nile River
Missouri lies in the midwestern region of the U.S.
Colorado lies in the Rocky Mountain Region
some places are part of a cultural or religious region
Middle East consists of mostly Arabic people and is also considered an Islamic region
needs for maps and globes
in ancient times people knew little about land and water beyond homes
exploration of land helped mapmakers present information accurately
Tools of Geography
round model of Earth
shows continents and oceans as are
only difference is scale (size) of continents and oceans
problem is globe cannot be made with enough detail and cannot be made small enough to be convenient for people
Problem with maps
have distortion which is a change in shapes and distances
Problem with Mercator map
Some of the lands sizes are distorted
map in the back of the room shows Greenland being bigger than South America?

Main problem with interrupted projection
Distances cannot be determined correctly
Arthur Robinson’s projection
Shows the size and shape of land accurately except for around edges
most accurate map
Importance of different parts of the map
shows distance
Compass rose
shows the cardinal directions
tells what the symbols used on the map stand for
Helps to identify location easier
Understanding the Earth
The Five Themes of Geography
Why do we have 5 themes of geography???
so geographers can answer two questions:
1) where are things located?
2) why are they there?
Easy way to remember the 5 themes:
Mr Lip
M - movement
r - regions

L - location
i - interaction
p - place
What is Geography?
Why do we study Geography?
Why are maps better for mapping?
more convenient
more detailed
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