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Imperialist Diffusion of Science and Technology
Transcript of Imperialist Diffusion of Science and Technology
the spread of cultural elements from one area or group of people to others by contact
any force acting upon a relatively underdeveloped nation of the 19th century (India or China), which did not directly arise from the workings of the international economic per se
THE CASE OF INDIA
Science, Technology and Imperialism:
Science, Technology and Imperialism:
OF WESTERN SCIENCE
A Colonial History
of Science and Technology
in the Philippines
Questions that need to be answered:
1.Did colonialism and other forms of political and military aggression remove national sovereignty to such an extent that the ability of nations to respond to the “Western Impact” was curtailed?
2.Did the imperialist regime directly or indirectly inhibit/slow down the successful modernization of economies?
During the 17th century, after admitting to the supremacy of the Dutch in South East Asia, the British established bases in India at Madras (1639), Bombay (1661) and Calcutta (1690).
The decline of the Mughal Empire after the death of Aurangzeb and the defeat of the French in 1763 provided opportunities for Britain to have territorial expansion and direct rule over large province of Bengal.
This was a period of adventure, with the private enterprise of the East India Company serving as the motor rule.
During 1848-56, under the rule of Lord Dalhousie, there had been an acceleration of Britain’s creeping frontier in the subcontinent, and was based on the Doctrine of Lapse (a state was taken over whenever a problem of succession arose.
There was the final exit of the East India Company, when the government of India was assumed by the British Crown in 1858.
From thence, a large administration and efficient police force removed the effective sovereignty from the Indian people, and the White Man’s Burden arose.
The most explicit and embracive account of Britain’s failure in India is provided in an Article by E.N Komarov in 1962. Included in his article was the seven-claim as to why there had been a failure.
1.Prior to British incursion, Indian economy showed signs of transition to late feudalism.
Factors that hindered economic development:
*predominance in state property in land
*preservation of tribal relations
2. Establishment of East India Company rule entailed a loss of economic sovereignty in the form of trading monopolies secured by the Company, causing a decline of Indian merchant capital.
3. British reforms served to intensify the feudal exploitation of the Indian peasantry. This is done by abolishing the former traditional limitations of the amount of feudal rent.
4.British industrial revolution demanded increased foreign trade and investment, so to revenue-exploitation was now added “exploitation through non equivalent exchange” between Britain and the colony.
5.The later 19th century witnessed the further destruction of indigenous capitalism through the “extraction of super-colonial profits on capital investments in India by ruthless exploitation of her industrial workers”.
6. In agriculture, further reform of the tenure and the revenue systems now served to break open village society and differentiate the peasant classes.
Ryotwori (tax returns to the Raj) and Zamindari (rent) areas the occupancy rights of peasantry were now more or less secured, and the resulting land of traders, moneylenders, landlords and some of the “prosperous peasants who combined farming with trade and manufacturing”, creating a class of landless laborers and unemployed.
7. Domestic industries of India were faced with a flood of colonial imports which competed with manufactures of both consumer and producer goods, and were burdened with excise duties and taxation.
In summary of Komarov’s claims, the Industrial revolution in India was really held up or hindered at its early stage.
State of Indian Agriculture
• Differentiation of peasantry was significant and based upon an agriculture which produced an enormous range of crops in both robi (spring) and kharif (autumn) harvests.
• New crops such as tobacco and maize were diffusing generally.
• Among the simple but superior agricultural technique includes:
-pin drum gearing
-Persian wheel (for lifting water)
-parallel worm for the cotton gin
-roller-crushing in sugar mills
• The barriers to the generalized use of new techniques resulted from the operation of objective economic forces, such as lack of capital and skills required to operate a system of geared rollers.
• Indian occupations were composed of a range of agricultural workers, village artisans (blacksmith, carpenters, potters, weavers, warehousemen, and water carriers).
• Many others engaged in the handicraft industries of cotton textiles, silks, jewelry and weaponry, as well as the small traders in saltpeter, Indigo, sugar, opium and ginger.
• Seventeenth century Indian craftsmanship in the working of alloys, soldering, lacquer work, oil distillation, the use of saltpeter to cool water, riveting, and sophisticated haulage techniques were as advanced as anywhere.
• Apart from mining, many merchants limited their activity to financing and organization rather than innovative production.
Trade and Revenue
• Trade and Revenue effects of British dominion are difficult to dismiss.
• Between 1700 and 1825, imports of silk manufactures from India to Britain were prohibited by law.
• In 1797-1825 heavy duties on cotton textiles were established, when Samuel Crompton’s invention of 1779 allowed machine spinning of fine yarn for muslins which had previously been imported from the hand-spinner of the subcontinent.
• The absence of any developmental monetary, banking and financial policy dictated no trade protection except that which distance and ignorance might afford.
• During 1870-1920, there had been a growing subculture of badlis, the temporary cotton workers of Bombay.
• Finally, the development of dastari work system, whereby laborers made money payments to jobbers, who then negotiated employment for them suggests that the effective labor supply was plentiful and competitive.
China, “the victim of imperialism without annexation”, became a prey of the western predatory imperialist nations after the two opium wars.
The first opium war (1840-42) came about when the Chinese authorities destroyed the opium which were illegally brought and sold in China by the British traders. This war was won by Britain and China was forced to sign the Treaty of Nanking (1842). The provisions of the treaty were:
1. Opening of five ports (Canton, Amoy, Foochow, Ningpo, and Shanghai) to British trade.
2. Renouncing the island of Hong Kong to Great Britain,
3. Payment of war indemnity ($21,000,000), and
4. Enabling all British traders to do business directly with the people.
The second opium war (1856-60) came about when a French missionary was killed by a Chinese. China lost to the alliance of France and Britain and the Treaties of Tientsin (1858) and the Peking Convention (1860) were signed with the following provisions:
1.Cession of the Kowloon peninsula to Great Britain,
2.Foreign diplomats were allowed to reside in Peking,
3.Ten more ports in China were opened to international trade,
4.Foreigners were allowed to wander to any part of China,
5.Christian missionaries were given protection, and
6.The Opium trade was legalized.
China became a vulnerable country and this weakness was taken advantage by the imperialist powers—Britain, France, Prussia, Denmark, Holland, Spain, Belgium, Italy and Austria-Hungary.
They divided the vast land of China into pieces of territories called the Spheres of Influence over which the imperialist power has the exclusive right to exploit the natural resources found in its piece.
The imperialist powers in China until 1895 were Europeans and Americans. After the loss of China in the Sino-Japanese war (1894-95), the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed with the provisions that China would give up its claim in Korea, paid a war indemnity ($158,000,000), and cession of Formosa, Arthur Port, and Liaotung Peninsula to Japan.
The war also opened China to new imperialist powers such as Russia.
Under the Russian imperialism, the Trans-Siberian railway was constructed for the following purposes:
To promote the economic development of China and other colonies of Russia,
To provide easier transportation of Russian troops to its colonies, and
To connect Moscow and Vladivostok (“Dominion of the East”).
As a conclusion, the Chinese economy died during the first part of imperialism (under Americans and Europeans) for only the foreigners controlled and gained in the trades.
Technological transfer and industrialization could have been effective if China controlled its economy. Under the Russian imperialism, aside from Suez Canal, the Trans-Siberian railroad aided to the diffusion of technology in China.
The treaty ports, the same as foreign settlements, were said to have played an important role in the transfer of technology and industrial knowledge from the foreigners to the Chinese people by providing employment and training grounds. In fact Shanghai, which is the largest treaty port, was able to establish its Gas Company, improved waterworks and electric power plant in the late 1800s.
But as a whole, the changes brought about by the ports are small. Aside from local resistance, the commerce between ports included only raw materials, so there was little technology transfer.
Another was the development of the comprador system, dominated by the compradores (Chinese merchant and manager of foreign firms).
This slowed down the introduction of Western ideas into the industry.
Instead of being helpful, the treaty ports were looked upon as enemies of the government, accusing the settlements as refuge for criminals and republicans.
When the designing of the railway linking Shanghai and Soochow was started, the officials’ delayed aid for the foreigners was due to conflicts in policies. Fortunately, in 1882, supports for the construction of the railway were improved after satisfying criteria like employing Chinese labor. Still, the project’s progress turned out very slow. The effect of the railway in the Chinese economy was little on the positive side since the foreign capital exerted control over the system.
In conclusion, the small size of the systems established in China was not only due to the traditional ways of the Chinese, but also the negative effects of the Western attempt for industrialization.
ENLARGED INTERCOURSE – INDIA, CHINA, AND JAPAN
India and China had much in common
Both large in population
Suffered threat and invasion
Developed military despotisms
Numerous languages, dialects, ignorance etc. hindered the emergence of either nationalism or entrepreneurship
Under the right conditions, regions industrialized in a manner analogous to advancing areas of Europe and Russia in the late nineteenth century
“China was too large as to absorb into itself without trace the modernization which stemmed from the treaty ports.”
The history of Manchuria in the early 20th century suggests that there was little in Chinese culture which prohibited economic modernization.
Traumatic shocks to existing economic and political systems merely reduced the efficiency of social control mechanisms and in the case of India and China loss of sovereignty over decision making in the economic sphere.
There was disestablishment of rural by-employments in China and India.
The Japanese government concentrated its efforts upon the wholesale use of western techniques and personnel as a prelude to the indigenisation of knowledge and decision making.
1880- the local mines of Takashima were taken over by Mitsubishi; water wheels for drainage and techniques for excavation were introduced
The introduction of western technologies into the 43 government metal mines (1868-75) redefined the effective resource base.
Of the three nations (China, India, Japan), China seems to stand as an intellectual contender to the West, and Japanese science was basically Chinese science for most of the nation’s history, yet Japan used the artifacts of Western Science to escape from remaining a second-class citizen of the world.
Italy, France, England, Netherlands, Germany, Austria and Scandinavian countries were the original home of Modern Science during the 16th and 17th centuries, the scene of Scientific Revolution.
How did modern science diffuse from Western Europe to the rest of the world?
Direct contact with a Western European country through military conquest, colonization, imperial influence, commercial and political relations, and missionary activity.
1. Nonscientific society/nation provides a source for European science.
Non-scientific- refers to the absence of modern Western science (not of ancient indigenous scientific thought)
2. Colonial Science
3. Transplantation with struggle to achieve an independent scientific tradition
The First Phase (around 16th to 17th Century)
-Characterized by a European visiting the new land, surveys and collects flora and fauna, studies its features, and takes the results of his work back to Europe.
-Botany, zoology and geology predominated at this phase while anthropology, ethnology, and archaeology ranked second.
-Through this phase, the process of observation became one of the important factors in the culture of science that valued the systematic exploration of nature. Together with training and expertise in science, it increased the observer’s awareness and value of his discoveries.
-Trade and the prospect of settlement were the primary influence to the observer’s investigation for new land.
Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo- first naturalist of the New World, his book delineating the natural history of the West Indies
Captain James Cook led three exploratory voyages in the Pacific Ocean which enabled the Westerners to travel to Asia. Christian missionaries arrived in China and Japan. The Portuguese, who were interested in spice trade, opened a sea route to India, thereby bringing European science-collectors to the continent.
The Second Phase (18th Century)
- Colonial science- dependent science
Scientific activity in the new land is based primarily upon institutions and traditions of a nation with an established scientific culture.
- It does not imply the existence of some scientific imperialism where science in the non-European country is suppressed or under an imperial power.
- Colonial Scientist- a native or a transplanted European colonist or settler whose sources of education and institutional attachments are beyond the boundaries of the land in which he carries out his scientific work.
He seeks the membership and honors of European scientific societies and publishes his researchers in European scientific journals.
Heroes of Colonial Science
- experimentalist and theorizer whose research on electricity overshadowed many of his European contemporaries
Mikhail V. Lomonosov
- chemist, who had significant contributions on Russian colonial science
What was the moving force that led the colonial scientist to shift from dependency to independency?
--> Nationalism, both political and cultural.
The Third Phase (18th to 19th Century)
- Least understood, appreciated and studied aspect of the process of the spread of modern science to the rest of the world
- There was a difficulty in fully integrating science into a society that had previously had little contact with Western science.
- Colonial scientists, who were oriented toward an external science, were to be replaced by scientists whose major ties are within the country in which he works.
- Colonial and dependent scientific culture was to be exchanged for an independent one.
To achieve this goal:
Resistance to science on the basis of philosophical and religious beliefs and the encouragement of scientific research
Determination of the social role and place of the scientist in the society
Relationship between Science and Government, where science receives state encouragement and financial aid and government maintains neutral position in scientific matters
Introduction of Science into all levels of educational systems
Foundation of native scientific organizations dedicated to the promotion of science
- acknowledged the importance of scientific societies when he founded the Institut d’ Egypte
-believed scientific organizations were crucial to the establishment of modern science
Establishment of channels to facilitate national and international scientific communication
Availability of proper technological base for the growth of science
Pre-colonial Science and Technology
There were numerous, scattered, thriving, relatively self-sufficient and autonomous communities long before the Spaniards arrived in 1521.
50,000 years ago
• modern men (homo sapiens) from the Asian mainland first came over-land and across narrow channels to live in Palawan and Batangas
40,000 years ago
• they made simple tools or weapons of stone flakes but eventually developed techniques for sawing, drilling and polishing hard stones
3,000 years ago
• they were producing adzes ornaments of seashells and pottery of various designs.
• manufacture of pottery subsequently became well developed and flourished for about 2,000 years until it came into competition with imported Chinese porcelain.
early Filipinos learned to make metal tools and implements -- copper, gold, bronze and, later, iron
work sites have yielded iron slags
actual extraction of iron from ore, smelting and refining
1st century AD
• Filipinos were weaving cotton, smelting iron, making pottery and glass ornaments and were also engaged in agriculture
• Lowland rice was cultivated in diked fields and in the interior mountain regions as in the Cordillera,
• They learned how to build boats for coastal trade
10th century AD
• Highly developed technology
• Spanish chroniclers took note of the refined plank-built warship called caracoa. These boats were well suited for inter-island trade raids.
• The people of Ma-i and San-hsu traded beeswax, cotton, true pearls, tortoise shell, medicinal betelnuts, yu-ta cloth and coconut heart mats for Chinese porcelain, iron pots, lead fishnet sinkers, colored glass beads, iron needles and tin.
15th century AD
• The Spaniards found the town of Mindoro "fortified by a stone wall over fourteen feet thick," and defended by armed Moros -- "bowmen, lancers, and some gunners, linstocks in hand." There were a "large number of culverins" all along the hillside of the town.
• Raja Soliman’s remains were reported to have -- "money, copper, iron, porcelain, blankets, wax, cotton and wooden vats full of brandy.
• There were the clay and wax moulds, the largest of which was for a cannon seventeen feet long, resembling a culverin
• Filipinos were growing rice, vegetables and cotton; raising swine, goats and fowls; making wine, vinegar and salt; weaving cloth and producing beeswax and honey.
• They wore colorful clothes, made their own gold jewelry and even filled their teeth with gold.
• They had no calendar but counted the years by moons and from one harvest to another.
Developments in Science and Technology
During the Spanish Regime
• Imposition and collection of the tribute tax, enforcement of compulsory labor services among the native Filipinos, and implementation of the compulsory sale of local products to the government.
• The religious orders likewise played a major role in the establishment of the colonial educational system in the Philippines.
• On the whole, higher education was pursued for the priesthood or for clerical positions in the colonial administration.
• With the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, the liberal ideas and scientific knowledge of the West also reached the Philippines.
• Filipino students to go to Europe for professional advanced studies.
o Jose Rizal - Medicine and specialize in ophthalmology (Spain and Germany)
o Graciano Apacible - medicine in (Madrid)
o Antonio Luna - Ph.D. in pharmacy (Madrid)
o Jose Alejandrino - engineering in (Belgium)
• The royal and pontifical University of Santo Tomas remained as the highest institution of learning.
• Introduction of technology of town planning and building with stones, brick and tiles but they have import Chinese master builders, artisans and masons due to insuficient skills.
• Construction of the walls of Manila, its churches, convents, hospitals, schools and public buildings were completed by the seventeenth century.
• Studies of infectious diseases such as smallpox, cholera, bubonic plague, dysentery, leprosy and malaria were intensified with the participation of graduates of medicine and pharmacy from UST.
• Cronica de Ciencias Medicas de Filipinas – a publication showing scientific studies being done.
• Little development in Philippine agriculture and industry due to the dependence of the Spanish colonizers on the profits from the Galleon or Manila-Acapulco trade. During the time, Manila prospered as the entrepot of the Orient.
• Filipinos acted as the trade's packers, middlemen, retailers and also provided services and other skills which the Spanish community in Intramuros needed.
• Shipbuilding focused in the hands of the natives and it became a proof that they are perfectly capable of undertaking the study of abstruse sciences and that mathematical equations are by no means beyond their comprehension.
• Real Sociedad Economica de los Amigos del Pais de Filipinas (Royal Economic Society of Friends of the Philippines) – research in agriculture and industry founded by Governador Jose Basco y Vargas under authority of a royal decree of 1780.
• National Research Council undertook the promotion of the cultivation of indigo, cotton, cinnamon, and pepper and the development of the silk industry.
• During the nineteenth century, education was endowed with funds for:
o financing the publication of scientific and technical literature
o trips of scientists from Spain to the Philippines
o providing scholarships to Filipinos.
• Manila was opened to Asian shipping
• Manila was officially opened to world trade and commerce (Local industries: weaving, embroidery, hatmaking, carriage manufacture, rope-making, cigar and cigarettes-making)
• Meteorological studies were promoted by Jesuits who founded the Manila Observatory
• Fr. Federico Faura to issue the first public typhoon warning
• Modern amenities -- a waterworks system, steam tramways, electric lights, newspapers, a banking system -- were introduced into the city by the latter half of the nineteenth century.
• establishment of a Nautical School, vocational schools and a School of Agriculture, agronomic research and teaching, geological research and chemical analysis of mineral waters throughout the country
• Observatory was made a central station of the Philippine Weather Bureau which was set up by the American colonial authorities
Science and Technology during the First Republic
There was very little development in science and technology during the The government took steps to establish a secular educational system by a decree of 19 October 1898; it created the Universidad Literaria de Filipinas as a secular, state-supported institution of higher learning. It offered courses in law, medicine, surgery, pharmacy and notary public. During its short life, the University was able to hold graduation exercises in Tarlac on 29 September 1899 when degrees in medicine and law were awarded.
During the American Regime
Science and technology in the Philippines advanced rapidly by the simultaneous government encouragement and support for an extensive public education system; the granting of scholarships for higher education in science and engineering; the organization of science research agencies and establishment of science-based public services.
Education in the 19th Century
• The Philippine Commission, which acted as the executive and legislative body for the Philippines until 1907, promulgated Act No. 74 creating a Department of Public Instruction in the Philippines.
• Philippine Normal School to train Filipino teachers
• The Philippine Medical School was established in 1905 and was followed by other professional and technical schools.
• The University of the Philippines was created on 18 June 1908 by Act of the Philippine Legislature.
• Philippine commission passed an Act to finance the sending of 135 boys and girls of high school age to the United States to be educated as teachers, engineers, physicians and lawyers. In exchange for this privilege, the pensionados, as they came to be called, were to serve in the public service for five years after their return from their studies.
• Education in these professions came to be regarded as the means of making the best of the limited opportunities in the Spanish colonial bureaucracy and thus of rising from one's social class.
• Bureau of Public Works was created in 1901, the Americans found that there were no competent Filipino engineers, and American engineers had to be imported.
• The University of the Philippines remained the only publicly-supported institutions for higher education, and, since it could not meet the increasing social demand for universities was left to the initiative of enterprising Filipinos.
• Corporation Law (Act No. 1459) enacted by the Philippine Commission in 1906 treated the schools like commercial firms or business enterprises under the supervision of the Department of Public Instruction rather than the Department of Trade and Industry.
• Act No. 2076 (Private School Act) was enacted by the Philippine Legislature. The Act recognized private schools as educational institutions and not commercial ventures (headed by a superintendent, an assistant superintendent and two supervisors).
• Act in 1933 creating the National Research Council of the Philippine Islands (NRCP) who actively participated in the deliberations and drafting of provisions affecting science and industry in the 1934 Constitutional Convention.
• Institute of Science (1951) was reorganized and Renamed Institute of Science and Technology
• 1957 - Deterioration of Philippine science since the early years of the American regime due to:
o the lack of government support
o death of scientists of high training and ability
o low morale of scientists
o a lack of public awareness of Science.
• 1958 - Congress enacted the Science Act (Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) and the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and placed these, along with the NRCP, under the NSDB)
• 1983 - Executive Order No. 889 was issued by the President which provided for the establishment of a national network of centers of excellence in basic sciences. As a consequence, six new institutes were created:
o The National Institutes of Physics
o Geological Sciences
o Natural Sciences Research
o Mathematical Sciences
• The agricultural science generally tended to receive more funding and support compared to the physical sciences
SOME SIGNIFICANT FILIPINO DISCOVERIES AND CONTRIBUTIONS
• Baybayin- a pre-Spanish Philippine writing system
• Medical incubator -invented in 1941 by Fe del Mundo
• Raymundo Favila - elected as Academician in 1979, one of the people who initiated mathematics in the Philippines
• Yoyo - invented as a hunting weapon by the ancient Filipinos, probably in the Visayas.
• Sibat - a staff or spear used as a weapon or tool by natives of the Philippines. It also called bangkaw, sumbling or palupad in the islands of Visayas and Mindanao.
• Panabas - a large, forward-curved sword, used by certain ethnic groups in the southern Philippines.
• Balisong -(also known as a butterfly knife or fan knife)is a folding pocket knife with two handles counter-rotating around the tang such that, when closed, the blade is concealed within grooves in the handles.
• Kampilan - a type of single-edged long sword, used in the Philippine islands of Mindanao, Visayas, and Luzon.
• Balangay was the first wooden marine vessel ever excavated in Southeast Asia
• Calesa - (sometimes called a caritela/karitela) is a horse drawn calash (carriage) used in the Philippines
• Erythromycin – antibiotic discovered by Abelardo Aguilar derived from the bacterium Streptomyces erythreus
• Patis – popular salty partner of many Filipino dishes which was discovered by Ruperta David
• Banana catsup – discovered by Filipino Food Technologist, Maria Orosa y Ylagan.
• Moon Buggy – invented by Eduardo San Juan, also known as Lunar Rover
• Karaoke Sing Along System – invented by Roberto del Rosario, president of the Trebel Music Corporation in 1975
Imperialist Diffusion of
Science and Technology
Artaba, Michelle Veronica
Bañares, Christine Nicole
De Leon, Esther
Valderama, Charlene Mae