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Canada vs Great Britain
Transcript of Canada vs Great Britain
GREAT BRITAIN STEM CELL RESEARCH: What are Stem Cells? Adults Stem Cells
March 2002= First Canadian laws to govern stem cell research
Created in light of ethical/moral implications brought forth..
March 2004: Canadian parliament enacted the Assisted Human Reproduction Act (AHRA). Serena's Main Points: KRISTEN'S MAIN POINTS: WELCOME TO TONIGHT'S SHOW WITH YOUR HOST:
AMY ANDOW Differentiation
Self-renewal. STEM CELLS: Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hES) can include neural stem cells, skin stem cells, and blood (hematopoietic) stem cells. (cord blood or bone marrow) which can be donated in both Canada & GB) hES are pluripotent, derived from 5 day-old blastocysts and have the ability to form 220 types of specialized cells in the human adult body. SUPER CELLS!! Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS) are created from adult cells – often skin cells and may have the same properties and benefits as ES cells. What are Stem Cells??? Amanda's Main Points: LIVE LIVE LIVE Lindsay's Main Points
2001: Canada was first to established a federally funded network called the Stem Cell Network of Canada JESSALYN's MAIN POINTS: Anna's Main Points: The main moral & ethical issue surrounding Human Embryonic Stem Cell research: Christa's Main Points: KRISTEN PARKS LIVE SERENA BOWMASTER LIVE AMANDA FILA LINDSAY WEIDHAAS JESSALYN LONGMIRE LIVE ANNA STEPHENSON LIVE CHRISTA DAYTON Canadian Stem Cell Network Report: 2011-2012: "Building an Informed Public" Issues within Canada:
ethical, moral issues
regulations & policies restricting vital research
lack of public knowledge & misinterpretation Issues within Great Britain
want more research freedom/ restrictions
not strict enough
ethical & moral views and values
fear of cloning
misinterpreted information Stem Cell Research Issues Canadian Ethics & Guidelines: 2007: Great Britain: Moral/ Ethical issues has been a cause of decreased funding for stem cell research in UK due to "Hybrid Embryos" (Human & Animal embryos)
(This type of research is Illegal in Canada) 2002: Great Britain opens first stem cell bank
(10 YEARS AGO)
Canada has just recently begun creating a public cord blood bank and a stem cell registry January 26th, 2012: Stem Cell Replacement therapy performed to replace tissue in damaged heart @ Toronto General Hospital How is Canada addressing this issue for not just health care providers, but the public too? UK Policies/ Guidelines & Funding 1) a) Do you feel that guidelines and policies are restricting important research or are they too lenient with regards to morals and ethics? (Both Canada & GB)
b) Do you feel the benefits of using hES cells to help the suffering, outweighs the moral/ethical risk of, in some views, essentially taking a life?
2) a) As a nurse, do you think you could competently educate a patient on stem cell research and possible therapies?
b) Do you feel that this information should be part of our nursing education, or that it is our responsibility as professional health care providers to continually educate ourselves on such topics as stem cell research? Now Let's Hear from the Crowd: SPECIAL GUEST HOST:
THERESA SEELEY Canada Stem Cell Research History: Great Britain's Stem Cell Research History 1948 - 58: Stem cell mechanisms deduced for sperm development and intestinal epithelium replacement 1958: Nuclei from adult frog cells reprogrammed to full embryonic potential after transfer into frog eggs (UK) 1959: Experiments in mice prove the existence of resident blood stem cells in marrow 1961: The existence and properties of transplantable stem cells in mouse bone marrow are established and the first colony methodology for counting them is introduced. This discovery set the stage for all current research on adult and embryonic stem cells 1969: First application of cell separation technology to dissect marrow stem cell hierarchy 1981: Embryonic stem cells are first derived from the inner cell mass of mouse blastocysts UK & USA 1982 - 1986: First methodology developed for targeted genetic modification in embryonic stem cells & USA 1992: Neural stem cells identified in the adult human brain 1993: Pluripotency of embryonic stem cells is proven through the generation of entirely embryonic stem cell-derived mice (Canada 1996: First cloning of a mammal: Dolly the sheep is born 2007: Great Britain approves human-animal embryo research 2009: British scientists create
sperm-like cells 2000: Retinal stem cells identified in mice 2009: iPS cells created with minimal residual genomic alteration 2011: Isolation of multipotent human blood stem cells capable of forming all cells in the blood system St. John, NB: Stem Cell Transplant program
now available Concern: Are Doctor's and health care providers within Canada able to provide information for those patients interested in stem cell replacement therapies? (Stem Cell Network, 2009) (Stem Cell Network. 2009) Work in 2 different ways: (Stem Cell Network, 2009) Canadian Research is funded mostly by federal government, publicly, but is funded Privately as well.
(Majority of funding in Canada given goes to ADULT stem cell research, where in UK, funding will support ALL stem cell research) 2003-2008: UK government gave 184.5 million pounds to stem cell research
Privately Funded 2009: UK created Stem Cell Tool Kit:
Intended to be a reference tool for those wishing to complete Stem Cell research 2004: Human Tissue Act embryos no older than 14 days can be used for research (Same as Canada)
This policy created to alleviate moral/ ethical issues.. most embryo's used are initially created through IVF (In vitro fertalisation) 1990: Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act of 1990 (since amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008) UK Health Care Issues/ Questions to consider.. Misinterpretation/ discourse from media: "Researchers as Murderers" Historical "immoral" steps to further science and research Ethical/ Moral Issues? More important than saving the suffering? (Pfeffer, 2008) Statistics:
The Burden of Chronic Disease Cancer: Great Britain: Cancer:
2009: Around 320,500 people were diagnosed with cancer in the UK Diabetes:
There are 2.9 million people who have been diagnosed with diabetes in the UK (2011) and 10 % have Type 1 Diabetes.
an estimated 185, 400 new cases in 2012 Diabetes:
2008-2009: 6.8 % of population (2.4 million) living with diabetes (CIHR, 2010) (Roberts & Throsby, 2008) Touched on Both: Canada & Great Britain (Stem Cell Network, 2012) (Crowe, 2012) (Small & Doherty, 2012) (Sykes, 2010) Should researchers be tampering, with what many view as, a potential life? Theresa Seeley The GREATEST
Scientist of All!! Canada: Great Britain & Global Concern as well
2011 International Society for Stem Cell Research Annual Report (Banchoff, 2005) (Horizon Health Network, 2012) (CBC News, 2010) References: Banchoff, T. (2005). Path dependence and value driven issues: the comparative politics of stemcell research. World Politics. 57(2), 200-230. Canadian Institutes of Health Research. (2010). Updated guidelines for human pluripotent stem cell research. Retrieved from http://cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/42071 .html Ehrich, K., Farsides, B., Williams, C., & Scott, R. (2011). Constructing an ethical framework for embryo donation to research: is it time for a restricted consent policy?. Human Fertility, 14(2), 115-121. doi:10.3109/14647273.20 11.557762 Francais, A. (2009). Ten reasons to make cord blood stem cells a public good. Canadian Medical Association Journal 180(13), 1279. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.090 972 Gallagher, J. (2012, September 12). Deaf gerbils ‘hear again’ after stem cell cure. BBC News. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-19570024 Gray, R. (2009, April 27). The miracle stem cell cures made in Britain. The Telegraph Journal. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/5232182/ the-miracle-stem-cell-cures-made-in-Britain.html Horizon Health Network. (2012, March 01). The Saint John Hospital announces the official opening of the New Brunswick stem cell transplantation program lab. Retrieved from http://en.h orizonnb.ca/home/ways-to-give/news/official-opening-of-the-stem-cell-transplantation-program-lab.aspx Interview with Dr. James Hill. (2012, March 7). Interview Sun News. Retrieved from Pfeffer, N. (2008). What British women say matters to them about donating an aborted fetus to stem cell research: a focus group study. Social Science & Medicine, 66(12), 2544-2554. Roberts, C. & Throsby, K. (2008). Paid to share: IVF patients, eggs and stem cell research. Social Science & Medicine, 66(1), 159-169. Stem cells: FAQs. (2009, January 07). CBC News. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/ news/health/story/2009/01/07/f-stemcells.html World Health Organization: (Globally Reflected)
75% of the total population having one chronic condition
50% having two or more conditions (UK Department of Health, 2004) (Canadian Cancer Society, 2012) Department of Health. (2004). Improving Chronic Disease Management: Retrieved from: http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4075213.pdf (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2009) Canadian Cancer Society. (2012). Canadian Cancer Statistics 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.cancer.ca/Canada-wide/About%20cancer/Cancer%20statistics/PowerPoint%20slides.aspx?sc_lang=en Public Health Agency of Canada. (2009). Diabetes in Canada: Facts and figures from a public health perspective. Retrieved from: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/cd-mc/publications/diabetes-diabete/facts-figures-faits-chiffres-2011/index-eng.php