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Lithuania under control of Russian Empire 1795-1918

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Ieva Anušauskaitė

on 6 March 2014

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Transcript of Lithuania under control of Russian Empire 1795-1918

1830
1838
1917
1795
1876
Lithuania in the Russian Empire 1795-1918
Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Russian Empire is ruled by Catherine the Great who has imperial ambitions as all Russian Emperors since Russian empire was founded in 1721
In the end of XIX century Lithuanian - Polish Commonwealth was partitioned by three states - Pussia, Austria and Russia in 1772, 1792 and 1795
After first two partitions Russia took no repressive measures as it was engaged in a war with Turkey. On ending the war in 1792, however, Russia did not waste time to improve its positions regarding the Commonwealth.
Lithuania disappeared from the map. Now it is called Northwestern Krai
A lot of state figures of the Commonwealth were sent to Russian prisons and were released only after the death of the Russian Empress Catherine II.
The First Revolt (1830-1831)
A lot of Lithuanians, especially those who had supported Napoleon, suffered gravely from repressions of the Russian authorities.
Already in 1820s and thirties, underground patriotic organizations started emerging in Lithuania and Poland.
In 1830 an armed revolt broke out in Poland. When the news of it spread to Lithuania, a revolt committee was set up in Vilnius.(1831)
The First Revolt (1830-1831)
After unsuccessful revolt the estates of most of the landlords who had participated in the insurrection were confiscated, as well as the property of Catholic churches and monasteries, because the clergy had also supported the insurgents
Catholic churches were transformed into Russian Ortodox ones.
Number of Lithuanian schools were closed down, and Russian schools were established on the premises instead.
After the armed revolt, Lithuania lost its only institution of higher learning, too. Vilnius University, which had been opened in 1579, was closed down by the tzarist authorities in 1832. This action influenced negatively Lithuania's science, culture and education.
The Second Revolt (1863-1864)
However, the policy of Russification after the defeat in the uprising did not crush the hopes of the people to reestablish an independent Lithuanian - Polish state.
Insurgents were defeated by Russian troops because they had greater superiority in military terms.
Especially drastic measures to crush the revolt were taken under command of the Russian governor - general Michail Muravyov. In Lithuania he soon came to be nicknamed the Hangman.
Several thousand people were exiled to Siberia or other remote provinces of the Russian Empire while their property was confiscated.
Russification
The lands of many landowners were confiscated, entire villages were exiled to Siberia. In their place were settled Russian colonists.
1864-1904 the Lithuanian language was facing a real danger of extinction. Lithuanian press was forbidden. It was not allowed to use Lithuanian in schools too.
The order was issued to publish Lithuanian books using Russian Kirilica
Temperance movement and Book-smugglers
The book-smugglers from Irish man view point
Emilija Pliaterytė - Lithuanian Joan of Arc. A document from 25 March contains her note that joining the uprising was her sole idea. She cut her hair, prepared a uniform for herself and organized and equipped a group of volunteers, speaking passionately after a mass on 29 March. In summer of the same year she got a disease caused by exhaustion and passed away.
The monument for insurgents of 1831 revolt in Paneriai ( Vilnius county)
Task: write your name in Cyrillic alphabet
Lithuanian prayer-book written in Graszdanka
Motiejus Valančius on 2 Litas note.
In the period from 1850 to 1875 an outstanding public and cultural figure, bishop Motiejus Valančius headed the anti-drinking campaign.
Lithuanian schools were secretly set up in many parts of the country
Lithuanians started printing Lithuanian books abroad and smuggling them to Lithuania.
In 1883 the Lithuanian newspaper Aušra, Dawn in English, began to come out. It was published by a small group of Lithuanian intellectuals - Jonas Šliūpas, Jonas Basanavičius
Paths of book-smugglers
Full transcript