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Social Cognitive Theory2

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Felecia Saulter

on 28 April 2010

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Transcript of Social Cognitive Theory2

What is Social Cognitive Theory?
•Alfred Bandura
•Individuals learn by observing others 1. People learn by observing others 2. Learning can occur without a change in behavior 3. The consequences of behavior play a role in learning 4. Cognition plays a role in learning 5. People can have control over their actions and environments Educational Implications
•Students often learn a great deal simply by observing others Environmental Factors
Reinforced by model
Parents, teachers, and people in the media • Reinforced by third person
• Imitated behavior
–Tennis Player
• Consequences
–Observe response; do behavior Cognitive Factors
• Mental rather than behavioral
– 2 sources
• Verbal
• Demonstrate when needed
• Be aware of response-consequence contingencies
– Pay attention; form memory codes
• Expectations for future response-consequence contingences
– Response-reinforcement
– Response-punishment
– Outcome response
– Incentive
• Form beliefs
– Efficacy expectations
• Outcome and efficacy expectations
• Non-occurrence
– BanduraModel Environment
• Perception (Behavior)
• Consequences (Behavior)
• Past Behaviors (Person) Behavior
• Responses (Environment)
• Self-Confidence (Person)
• Expectations (Person) Person
• Directing Attention (Environment) Self - Efficacy Self-efficacy NOT the same as self-concept or self-esteem
• Self-concept answers the question - “Who Am I?”
• Self-esteem answers the question “How good am I as a person?”
• Self-efficacy answers the question “How well can I do such-and-such?” Self-Efficacy is more predictive of learner’s performance than self-esteem or self-concept. AFFECTS BEHAVIOR
• Set higher goals in areas with high self-efficacy
– Usually traditional gender stereotypes Effort and Persistence Learning and Achievement
• Self-efficacy for learning
– “I can learn this if I put my mind to it.”
• Self-efficacy for performance
– “I already know how to do this.” Characteristics of Effective Models
• Competent
• Prestige and Power • Stereotypical or gender appropriate ways
• Relevant to the observer’s situation Conditions Necessary for Modeling
• Attention
• Retention
• Motor Reproduction
• Motivation Educational Implications
• Describing the consequences of behaviors can effectively increase appropriate behaviors and decrease inappropriate ones Educational Implications
• Modeling provides an alternative to shaping for teaching new behaviors Educational Implications
• Teachers, parents and other adult models need to take care to model appropriate behaviors Educational Implications
• Exposure to a variety of other models further enhances student’s learning
Educational Implications
Students must believe they are capable of accomplishing school tasks Educational Implications
•Teachers should help students set realistic expectations for their accomplishments Box 6: share something that you learned or made you think during our presentation Any Questions? THE END The Social Cognitive Theory
Alisa Lane
Elena Dowin
Felecia Saulter
Full transcript