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Hungarians in Canada
Transcript of Hungarians in Canada
HUNGARIAN IMMIGRATION INTO CANADA
HISTORY OF THE USSR AND THE IRON CURTAIN
BY: ALEX LEE
Tsar Nicholas II abdicated following the February Revolution of 1917.
The Mensheviks—meaning minority—established a provisional government after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Bolsheviks—meaning majority—took power after overthrowing the provisional government during the October Revolution with their leader, Vladimir Lenin.
COMMUNISM IN HUNGARY
The Communist Party of Hungary
The Communist Party of Hungary was formed on November 18, 1918 by
Bela Kun, a journalist who fought in World War 1.
Under the leadership of Bela Kun, the Communist Party briefly held power between March and August 1919.
During their time in power, Bela Kun attempted a large-scale agricultural collectivizaion project.
The Party's main objective was to mend the widespread economic crisis in Hungary after Hungary's defeat during WW1.
Despite the Party's objective to fix the economy, their policy created higher inflation and more food shortages across Hungary.
Because of the food shortages and inflation, an opposition led by Miklós Horthy attempted to overthrow the communist government.
This led to a "terror campaign" carried out by a secret police system formed by the Communist Party.
Despite their efforts to eliminate their opposition, invading Romanians captured Budapest and exiled Bela Kun to Vienna.
Kommunisták Magyarországi Pártja
With the fall of the Communist Party and the Hungarian Soviet Republic, Hungary began an Anti-Communist purge, resulting in 1,000-5,000 people killed, and more either executed, or imprisoned and tortured.
During this time, Bela Kun and many other Communist Party members moved to Moscow.
While in Moscow, Bela Kun organized the massacre of Anti-Communist "White Russians". This ended in his arrest and execution in 1937.
THE FALL OF COMMUNISM IN HUNGARY
Although Hungary had achieved some economic reforms, major changes only occurred when János Kádár, General Secretary of the Communist Party, was replaced by Karoly Grosz in May 1988.
In January 1989, the Parliament adopted a "democracy bundle", which included a radical revision of their constitution, and freedom of association among other benefits.
In May 1989, Hungary began dismantling parts of the 150 mile fence separating Austria and Hungary.
Round Table talks between the summer and autumn of 1989 ended in the creation of a multi-party constitutional democracy.
With the conclusion of the Round Table Talks, Hungary saw the Communist Party finally lose its 40 year grip on power, and re-establish itself as the Hungarian Socialist Party.
HUNGARIAN UPRISING OF
Began as a student demonstration
Lasted from October 23 - November 10
20,000 student demonstrators gathered near the statue of Jozsef Bem.
Readings of a manifesto, student demands, and the "National Song" occured.
They crossed the River Danube and joined with the protestors at the Parliament building, swelling up to 200,000 protestors.
First Secretary Erno Gero condemned these protests.
In response, protestors carried out their request of
the removal of a statue of Stalin.
Soviet military assistance requested by Erno Gero
By October 24, there were Soviet tanks in Budapest
Large crowd at the Radio Budapest building
Tear gas thrown and opened fire by the AVH
Hungarian soldiers sided with the protestors
Imre Nagy became Prime Minister, replacing Andras Hegedus, called for peace and wished to introduce political reform.
From Cctober 24-29, there were 71 armed clashes.
Membership was miniscule after the time of Bela's execution.
As a result...
Erno Gero and Andras Hegedus fled to the Soviet Union
During this time, there were attacks against Soviet troops and the AVH, and the removal of communist symbols.
In 1931, the government declared martial law, and any remaining Communists that the government could find in Hungary were arrested and executed.
e.g. Jozsef Dudas led a 400 man group which
attacked/murdered AVH members and pro-soviets
A ceasefire was arranged on October 28, with most Soviet
troops withdrawn by October 30
213 Hungarian Working People Party members were allegedly lynched or executed during this time.
November 1, Nagy declared Hungary's neutral stance and withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact.
Presidium of the Central Committee of the
Communist Party of the Soviet Union
On October 31, they issued the Declaration of the Government of the USSR on the Principles of Development and Further Strengthening of Friendship and Cooperation between the Soviet Union and other Socialist States
To destroy all opposition blocking the Communist Party from power, Mátyás employed "salami tactics".
Their decision was reversed the next day.
Resolution 120 adopted by the UN, 50 votes in favour to call on the Soviet union to end its intervention.
To cut them off, Mátyás portrayed his rivals and opponents as fascists or fascist sympathizers. Eventually, he cut off the right wing, centrists, and left wing opposition, until only "Fellow Travellers" remained.
A fellow traveller is a person who sympathizes with an organization's beliefs, but is not a formal member of the organization or group.
Within two years, almost all political parties had been effectively wiped out or rendered impotent, except for the Social Democrat Party.
With this, the two parties merged and became the Hungarian Workers Party (Magyar Dolgozók Pártja), and thus created Communist Hungary.
Under Lenin's rule, the Soviet Union became a Marxist-Leninst single party state.
And in December, 1922, the Treaty of the Creation of the USSR and the Declaration of the USSR was signed, officially forming the Union.
After Lenin's death in 1924, the head of state was passed down to a collective leadership, including Joseph Stalin.
IMMIGRATION INTO CANADA
The first wave of immigrants were farmers from the USA in the 1880’s-1890’s, the majority of which immigrated to Saskatchewan.
Stalin then–through influencing the people and isolating rivals–took totalitarian control of the government.
Paul Oscar Esterházy helped 35 families settle south of Esterhazy, SK in which is now known as Kaposvar in the year of 1886.
During WW2, the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact which meant that the two states pledged friendship in times of war.
The pact also assigned “spheres of influence” in Eastern Europe to each state and an agreement that each state should not interfere in the case that the other chooses to invade one of these spheres.
Kaposvar had a stone church built in 1906, which is now a place of pilgrimmage for Roman Catholics and a Kaposvar Historical Site.
This allowed Nazi Germany to keep the Soviets at bay and invade Poland, Czechoslovakia, Norway, France and the Low Countries as well as catch the Russians off guard when Nazi Germany invaded in 1941.
The growing amount of Hungarians had caused new key institutions to be made to accommodate the
The largest Hungarian Jewish community of Canada is situated in Montreal, trademarked by Hungarian-owned restaurants and bistros littered throughout the streets.
Before 1914, there was a population of around 8,000 Hungarians that immigrated to Canada, many of whom took to farming tobacco in southern Ontario.
IMPACT IN CANADA
The arrival of many young educated students resulted in big changes to the University of British Columbia as well as Loyola College by implementing Hungarian Studies.
23rd largest ethnic group in Canada.
It is reported that there are 315,510 people of Hungarian ancestry in Canada.
The Hungarian Canadian Federation is an umbrella organization that represents Hungarian clubs and churches.
In Toronto, the Hungarian School Board provides the option of schooling in a Hungarian atmosphere with Hungarian studies.
Marshal Ivan Konev launched Operation Whirlwind
to retake Hungary which involved the use of artillery, air strikes, tanks, and infantry,
Imre Nagy asked for help once more at 5:20 am on November 4
"A well equipped foreign army crushing by overwhelming force a national movement and eliminating the government"
- Report by the United Nations
They succeded in capturing the parliament building and
releasing captured prisoners.
2500 Hungarian casualties and 20,000 wounded
699 Soviet men killed, 1,450 wounded, with 51 MIA
Russian political newspaper "Pravda" gave a contradictary account as they said...
Counter revolution staged by facist, hitlerite, reactionary hooligans
Weakend Nagy's government
Counter revolution quelled by Soviets and Hungarian patriots
Reported calm in Budapest
Hungarians never wanted a revolution
January 1957: following a meeting involving representives from the Soviet Union,
Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania, they stated that they "defeated attempts to eliminate
the socialist achievements of the Hungarian people"
22,000 Hungarians arrested
13,000 imprisoned several hundred executed
200,000 Hungarian refugees
Nagy hanged in 1958 after a secret trial
Imre Nagy became the permanent Prime Minister
Janos Kadar became the First Secretary of the Communist Party
It stated that the Soviet government was willing to negotiate with the Hungarians.
The revolution in the USSR began as the current leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, had implemented radical changes during his six years in power. He would resign his position once the USSR fell.
Began in Poland and continued in East Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Romania.
Campaigns of civil unrest were demonstrated against the appointed system of one party rule which pressured for change in most of the countries involved.
Officially dissolved in 1991 on Christmas Day where the Soviet flag flew over the Kremlin for the last time.
14 new independent countries being the result of the collapse: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.
In cities, all signs of a vibrant culture have all been lost, save for those that still speak the language. However, Hungarian culture remains prominent in prairie provinces.
Half of Canadians possessing Hungarian blood live in southern Ontario, with 90% in or around Toronto.
It is the biggest Hungarian culutral centre outside of Hungary.
The University of Toronto houses the first fully funded Hungarian language program in Canada. Numerous Hungarian newpapers and magazines have spurred up since then as well.
The majority of Hungarians are Catholics. Toronto houses the location of the largest Hungarian Jewish newspaper in the world.
The difference in economic states, combined with the different political reasons for them immigrating to Canada, caused many cultural practices to cease, resulting in the end of Hungarian neighbourhoods.
The Soviet suppression of the Hungarian Revolution in 1956 resulted in the immigration of 38,000 people to Canada, the majority of them being young educated people without money, proper clothing, food, or shelter.
After the Nazis had surrendered, the Soviet Union set out to reconstruct the Eastern European countries while also making them satellite states of the union.
In 1955 the Warsaw Pact was signed by the eight Communist states of the Eastern Bloc, one of which was Hungary.
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