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Christian History Timeline
Transcript of Christian History Timeline
632 Muhammad Islam ca. 1075 Gregory VII Early Medieval Christianity Medieval Christianity ca. 1300 High Medieval
Scholasticism 1224-1275 Thomas Aquinas 354-430 Augustine Francis and
Dominic Culture Increase agriculture + increase population + Unification of Europe = Christendom Greek & Latin
Patristics Classical Philosophy Plato, Cicero + Aristotle Muslim Sources Avicenna and Averroes
(Aristotle) Jewish Sources Maimonides Birth of Universities and Scholasticism Integreation of Faith and Reason Fides Quarens Intellectum = "Faith Seeking Understanding" Scholastic Method
"Master" (magister) poses a Disputed Question
"Whether or not..."
Students propose their arguments
Master listens and then prepares an answer Structure of an Individual Article in the 'Summa Theologiae' 1. Question is posed
2. Objections are stated
3. Contrary opinion is stated
5. Reply to objections (#2) "Dark Ages" "Whether or not.." "It seems that..." "But against this..." "Response" "To the # argument..." Luther - 1483-1546
Zwingli - 1484-1531
Calvin - 1509-1564
Henry VIII - 1491-1547 Late Medieval
Period Reformation Today Modern Period Renaissance Founding of Franciscans
and Dominicans ca. 1517 - 95 Theses Characteristics of Modernity Secularism - human beings as they exist in themselves; not in relation to God
Globalization and Pluralism - beyond Eurocentric worldview (Christendom)
Nationalism - beginning of nation-states
Individualism - Individual over corporate identity
Democracy - equality over hierarchy and monarchy
Nature and science - study of nature for its own sake Characteristics of the Renaissance Period Renaissance = "rebirth" of learning and art
Return to classical (Latin & Greek) sources
Anthropocentric vs. Theocentric worldview Characteristics of Late Medieval Christendom Increasingly centralized leadership of Church under Popes
Wealth and power of the Church often led to abuses (e.g., indulgences)
Local kings, princes, and feudal lords maintained political control
Increasing conflict between Papacy and local leaders 2 powers
Lords and Church Serfs/Peasants Luther's theological concerns: Indulgences - selling the remission of sins
Justification by grace through faith
"The one who is righteous will live by faith" (Romans 1:17)
Sola fides; sola scriptura - "faith alone; Scripture alone"
rejected doctrine of transubstantiation How did we get here?
Protestant Reformation was one major change that led to modernity Peace of Westphalia 1545-1563 1648 Council of Trent 2 overlapping reform movements in the 16th century Catholic Reformation - internal reforms
Counter-Reformation - in response to the Protestant Reformation Catholic Reformation Reforms already begun by Francis and Dominic (13th century)
New religious orders: Society of Jesus (Jesuits), Capuchins, Discalced Carmelites
Pope Paul III (1534-1549): internal reform Ended practices of simony (selling church offices) and indulgences Counter-Reformation Clarified doctrinal issues at the Council of Trent (1545-1563)
Upheld transubstantiation of the Eucharist
Clarified Roman Catholic view of justification in response to the Protestant Reformers
Declared the Vulgate the official version of the Bible
Established seminaries Catholic Spiritual Revival Spiritual - Spanish mysticism
Teresa of Avila and John of the Cross
Artistic - Baroque art The Enlightenment ca. 1700 1962-65 Vatican II Religious Wars after Reformation (1524-1648) Ended with the Peace of Westphalia (1648)
Established 2 important precedents that contributed to modern thought: 1. Cuius regio, eius religio = "whose realm, his religion"
Each prince/king is free to choose the official religion of his land
2. Freedom of conscience/religious freedom for individuals
Regardless of the religion of the local prince, individuals are free to choose their religious tradition Caravaggio's "Conversion of St. Paul" (1601) Bernini's "St. Teresa in Ecstasy"
(1646) From gothic cathredral... Middle Ages Catholic Reformation ...to Baroque expressivism 11th century/Medieval From iconography... Baroque art ...to Baroque realism/humanism Second Vatican Council (Vatican II): 1962-65 Convened by Pope John XXIII
21 ecumenical council (Nicea was the 1st)
Pastoral council; as opposed to doctrinal
2 defining characteristics:
1. Dialogue - with those outside the Church
'Aggiornamento' - bringing up to date
Open the windows of the Church to let fresh air in
2. Solidarity Context of Vatican II: Pre-history Intellectual trends of modernity:
1. Scientific revolution (17th century)
Isaac Newton (1687) - the world functions according to its own natural laws
2. The Enlightenment (18th century)
Rationalism - human reason has the power to grasp reality
Emphasized reason, science, rights, religious toleration, progress, and freedom
French Revolution (1789-99) as culmination of rationalism Context of Vatican II: 20th century "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" First Vatican Council (Vatican I): 1869-70
Established papal infallibility
Increased centralization of the papacy
Extreme rejection of modernity
Modernity = "the synthesis of all heresies" (Pius X) 1. 'Ressourcement' (Fr.) - "return to the sources"
Attention to the early Church models
2. The Liturgical Movement
Desire to simplify the Mass and make it more understandable
Emphasis on the community as the gathered body of Christ
Worship should inform all aspects of Christian life (Liturgy --> Ethics)
3. Biblical Studies
Renewed openness to use modern methods of textual interpretation on the Bible
Linguistic, historical, archaeological, literary methods
Appreciation for Jesus as a 1st century Jew 3 major shifts between Vatican I and II:
2) The Liturgical Movement
3) Biblical Studies } Vatican II: The Fruits of Development 5 major developments from Vatican II:
1) Reform of the Liturgy
2) Church as the people of God
3) Ecumenical movement and Inter-religious dialogue
4) Dialogue with the secular world
5) Deepening Theology of Revelation } 1) Reform of the Liturgy Tridentine Mass
Priest said Mass in Latin
Communion rails - separate priest and laity
Passive role for laity in Mass
Eucharist as sacred, but distant (Benediction - look, but don't touch) Post-Vatican II Mass
Mass in the vernacular (local language of the people)
Active participation of the laity in worship
Eucharist as the "source and summit of Christain life" 3) Ecumenical Movement and Inter-religious Dialogue Sought to re-affirm positive relationships with 3 groups:
1) Other Christians (Eastern, Protestant, etc.)
3) World religions 1) Other Christian Churches
Goal = unity among all Christians
E.G. 1999 "Joint Declaration on Justification" between Lutherans and Catholics
Protestants: from "schismatics and heretics" to "our separated brethren"
Growing appreciation for the common ancestry of Jews and Christians, and for Jesus as a Jew himself
Tridentine Good Friday Mass: "Let us pray also for the faithless Jews: that Almighty God might remove the veil from their hearts so that they too may acknowledge Jesus Christ as Lord" Post 2008 Good Friday Mass: "Let us also pray for the Jews: That our God and Lord may illuminate their hearts, that they acknowledge Jesus Christ is the Savior of all men." 3) World Religions
Upholds Jesus Christ as the fullness of revelation, and declares that other religions "often reflect a ray of that Truth which enlightens all people"
Respect for all that is good in any religion or philosophy 2) Church as the People of God From Church as the hierarchy of Pope, Bishops, Priests to...
Church as the whole People of God (1 Cor 12:12-14)
Sacrament or sign of God's unity with all humankind through Christ
the Holy People of God
Governed by a college of bishops, with Pope as "first among equals"
Reflected a more Biblical/ancient ecclesiology 4) Dialogue with the Secular World Modernism = heresy A Church in solidarity with the modern world
Gaudium et Spes
Engages the "joys and hopes, the griefs and the anxieties" of the modern world (par. 1)
Addressed to all humanity, not just the Church
Church can learn from modern world (par. 7)
Upholds Christ as the answer to modern seeking/questioning (par. 10)
Church engages in the struggle for justice and the common good 2 Defining Characteristics of Vatican II = Solidarity and Dialogue 5) Theology of Revelation Bible as the Revealed Word of God is:
A historical document
Written by humans with human language
Contains all that God revealed as necessary for human salvation
Incarnational view of Scripture
Scripture and Tradition
Trent rejected the Protestant 'sola scriptura'
Vatican II affirmed an integral connection between Scripture and Tradition "The tradition which comes from the apostles develops in the Church with the help of the Holy Spirit. For there is a growth in the understanding of the realities and the words which have been handed down...as the centuries succeeded one another, the Church constantly moves forward toward the fullness of divine truth until the words of God reach their complete fulfillment in her [the Church]"
- Dei Verbum, par. 8 Distinguishing Characteristics of post-Vatican II Church: Solidarity and Dialogue Jesus Christ as the answer Full divine, fully human
Salvation through solidarity with human suffering in history
Low Christology ? of human existence Vatican II:
Gaudium et Spes A pilgrim Church made up of the whole people of God