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Untitled Prezi

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Sajni Patel

on 22 July 2013

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The founder of Athens and Greek civilizations was king Cecrops.
Born out of the earth and was half man half snake. He taught the people many crafts, as well as the burial customs, and decider of which god would protect the city.
Athena vs. Poseidon
Poseidon struck his trident into the rock of the Acropolis, and out sprang a well. The people ran to the well to drink its water, but had to spit it out since the water was salt, Poseidon being a sea god.
Then Athena touched the ground, and an olive tree grew out. This proved to be a much more useful present,
Athena won - giving her name as well
The wooden statue of Athena which originally stood on the Acro-polis was believed to have fallen out of the sky.
General Facts
Latin - prefix pro (before or in front of) ;Greek pylon or pylaion (gate)
West entrance
Portal to the Acropolis
Built by the architect Mnesicles
Access is through a gate (the Beulé Gate) between two towers
Halted during the Peloponnesian War Damaged in Explosion
Somewhat Restored
Temple of Athena
Old Temple of Athena

520 B.C. was damaged by the Persians in 480/79 B.C
Contained wooden statue “fell from the sky”
Athena Nike
The decision to build Athena Nike was an expression of Athens' ambitions to defeat Sparta and become a world power.
Acropolis plateau, right next to the Propylaia
Constructed from white marble, it was built in stages as wartime funding allowed
Medusa was raped by Poseidon, Athena got mad and turned her hair into serpent
By: Sajni Patel and Miles Young
Fun Facts
Panathenaea- (Athena) (The Panathenaia)
Athena’s Birthday
Celebrated Every 4 Years for 12 Days
Rites ,Sacrifices, Competitions, Dances
Dressed Athena’s wooden statue in peplos
Dionysia- (Dionysus)
Religious Festival
Drama competition
Boedromia- (Apollo and Artemis)
Military connotation
Adonia (Aphrodite and Adonis); Thesmophoria (Demeter and Persephone); Hermaea (Hermes) ; Heracleia (Hercules)
Athens originally used for defense purposes
Greeks kept an eye on the positions of enemies
Cultural Significance
Architectural influence
Sense of form and style, such that with simple construction techniques a profound balance was achieved that affects us to this day.
representing status and refinement
their simplicity and their relationships, and the ideal they embody in the field of human expression.
Embellishments involve simple plant and animal forms, and human bodies in a graceful expression of fluid space.
Greek ideals of democracy and freedom
Greek ideals of freedom and democracy.
making Athens the political and cultural focus of Greece.
•favors the many instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy.”
Acropolis- Greek for “high city”, “city on edge”
Akron-“extreme, edge, elevated”
Polis- “city”
Built During the Classical Period (480-323)
Elevated City
490 feet above sea level, surface area approx. 30,000 square meters
Divided into an Upper and Lower City
Athena Nike
Athena Nike

 The decision to build Athena Nike was an expression of Athens' ambitions to defeat Sparta and become a world power.

 Acropolis plateau, right next to the Propylaia

 Constructed from white marble, it was built in stages as wartime funding allowed
70 meters high (from base)
Flat top is 300 meters long x 150 meters wide
Based on the Attica Plateau

Shallow caves, water springs, steep slopes
Prime location for habitation and worship

Earliest known habitation was in the Neolithic Period (6800 – 3200 BC)
Mycenaean Period
1600 BC – 1100 BC

Mycenaean Kings inhabited the Acropolis and built palaces there
Fortification with 8 meter tall walls, 3.5 to 6 meters thick
Served as the main defense until the 5th century

Before 13th century BC, earthquake caused a fissure where a well was dug
Well served as a protected source of drinking water during battle

Only small remains of these walls and palaces remain today
The “Sacred Acropolis” Era
Acropolis became sacred in the 6th century BC when the “Athenia Polias” temple was built, but destroyed during the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC
The “Older Parthenon” was built in its place
The Golden Age
460 BC – 430 BC
All the major and sacred temples built during this time by Pericles
Temples on north end housed Olympian Gods
Temples on south end were dedicated to Goddess Athena
Built during 421-406 BC

Ionic temple of Athena

Named after King Erechtheus

Houses the tomb of Cecrops and Erechtheum,
Athens’ original kings, Athena’s sacred olive & Poseidon’s well

Erechtheus and Poseidon were worshipped here

Was designed to accommodate two ancient rites:
The Plynteria, or the cleansing festival
The annual Panathenaea, or the festival of games
The 6 Caryatids on the south porch

Built of marble in 447 BC

Acted as a treasury building for the Aegean League of City States

At one point it was changed into a Christian Church

Statue of Athena occupied the center

“Perfection of Proportion”

70,000 pieces, no two pieces are interchangeable

Temple attacked by Venetians in 1687

Ammunition that was hidden inside the temple was triggered and caused major destruction
Began in 1983; 37 years and counting
Nikaloas Balanos led restorations in the late 1800s but placed many pieces in wrong place

Must replace all missing pieces
Workers cut marble
from Pentelicon, a quarry
12 miles away

100,000 ton structure
70,000 individual, unique pieces

Can not hope to achieve the
level of perfection that the
ancient Athenians achieved
Restoration of the Parthenon
Works Cited



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