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Athens

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Courtney Huston

on 4 October 2012

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Transcript of Athens

Athens By: Courtney Huston
Rachel Anderson &
Lauren Wake Athenian Arts Athenian Science & Mathematics Literature * Thales of Miletus- He was an astronomer, mathematician, and philosopher. He was the founder of the Ionian school of natural philosophy and he also considered water to be the basis of all matter.

*Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were some of the world's finest philosophers. By asking basic questions about man and the universe, they influenced people to change their way of thinking on many subjects

*Greek scientists did not believe gods and demons caused storms, droughts, and other problems. They believed these things happened because of nature.

*The ancient Greeks were the 1st to observe that all matter was made up of atoms

*Aristarchus said that the earth and other planets revolved around sun

*Euclid, a mathematician, wrote a book called The Elements which was used for over 2,000 years to teach geometry. Homer wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey. The Iliad is the famous story about the Trojan War. The Odyssey is a mixture of tragedy and comedy. The Odyssey is a story about Odysseus, who is a warrior at Troy. He spent ten years fighting and another ten years sailing back home to his wife and family. during his voyage he lost all of his comrades and ships and make his way home to Ithaca disguised as a beggar. Both of these stories were based on legends.

The Homeric dialect was an archaic language based on Ionic dialect mixed with Aeolic dialect and Attic dialect.
Another great poet was Hesiod. He talks about himself in poetry. He was a native of Boeotia in central Greece. He is though to have lived around 700 B.C. He wrote Works and Days and Theogony.

Homer and Hesiod created a Bible for the Greeks. Homer told the story of a hero, and Hesiod helped with practical realities of the daily life. The ancient Greeks were a unique people. They strive for excellence no matter what the challenge was. They also believed in the balance of mind and body. Athens was one of the first-city states of its time. It was named after Athena, the goddess of wisdom and the city's patron. Athens became a democracy in 508 BC and it was one of the first societies to establish this. This form of government was used at a meeting place which the Greeks called the Assembly. The citizens of Athens met often to discuss different affairs. The government made no decisions without asking the Assembly first. The Acropolis was dedicated to Athena and was the religious shrine for the Athenian people. The walls were built on a layer of limestone rock overlooking the city, Within these walls, the Athenians were able to build temples and buildings. One of the most famous of these buildings was the Parthenon. The Athenians were masters of building and architects. They excelled in sculptures, pottery, architectural designs, and fine jewelry. The Theater of Dionysia was one of most famous theaters because one of the greatest events of the year was performed. It was the religious festival held in honor of the gods. For ten days, Athenians filled the theater to watch plays about comedies or tragedies. Women were not allowed to participate so all of the actors were men. The Greeks created beautiful temples and public buildings made of marble and limestone. The "Acropolis" of Athens was the site of some of the world's most beautiful buildings. The most famous of these was the Parthenon which was built to honor a Greek goddess. Greek Sculptors worked with marble and bronze. The Olympic Games were one of the greatest festivals for the Athenians. They were held ever four years and the athletes came from all regions of Greece. The most important of the competitions was the pentathlon where an athlete competed in five different events. The winner was presented with garlands and an olive wreath. *Archimedes was a mathematician and inventor. He discovered the laws of the lever and the pulley. He also increased the knowledge of chemistry, physics, and math.

*Aristotle founded "Zoology" and one of his students started "botany".

*Hippocrates was named the "Father of Modern Medicine". He taught that health problems had natural causes. He operated on patients, reset dislocated joints, and put broken bones back into place. Government Early Athens was ruled by a king, By the seventh century BC, Athens had become an oligarchy. Near the end of the 7th centurty instead of 1 ruler for all
of Greece, the individual city-states
preferred having their own government
in their own community. The democratic
government of Athens was the beginning
of democracy in western civilization.
Free speech and a voice were allowed to the citizens. Economy The Athenian economy was largely based on farming and trade. They grew vegetables, grains, and fruit. Grapes and olive trees were used to export and for wine. They also raised sheep and goats for wool and dairy products. Athenians had to import 50 to 80 percent of its grain because of the lack of fertile land. Because of this, trade was highly important to Athens. Athens became the leading trade center because The building of a port at nearby Piraeus helped makes Athens the leading trade center in the fifth-century BC Greek world. Daily Life By the 5th century BC, Athens had the largest population of all the Greek city-states. Slaves were very common and numbered around 100,000. Most everyone in Athens owned at least one slave unless they were very poor. Slaves often worked fields of in the homes as cooks or maids.
Family was one of the most important things in ancient Athens. The family's primary function was to produce new citizens by having children. Women were excluded from public life except in most public festivals. They remained at home and took care of the children. Women could not own property other than personal items. Girls were married at 14 or 15 and were expected to learn their responsibilities early. They were not provided with formal education although many learned to read and play instruments. They could not work outside unless they were poor.
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