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A Guide to Sources : Higher History
Transcript of A Guide to Sources : Higher History
In order to gain 6 marks you must consider the following
Opening Sentence: State how useful the source is.
Who was the author and why is this useful?
When was it written and why is this useful?
What type of source is this and why is this useful?
What is the purpose of the source and why is it useful?
Maximum 4 marks
Author, type, timing & purpose
What are the key points mentioned in the source?
Quote and then Support why it is useful
Is the message accurate?
Does the information make it more/less useful?
Are there omissions to the content that supports the question?
Maximum 2 marks
Maximum 2 marks
State your recall point
Explain your recall point
Link it back to the question
Do this twice!
Source A: from Life in Shetland as reported by a journalist in a popular local newspaper, 1885
The decade 1861—1871 marked the beginning of a decline in the population of
Shetland, which was to continue for the next century. New worlds were opening
up in Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Improvements in transport and
communication brought about by an industrial and technological revolution gave
the Scots knowledge of better conditions overseas. The introduction of
compulsory education under the Education Act of 1872 increased further the
awareness of opportunities that were available in Britain and elsewhere. This
generated dissatisfaction with the islanders’ own precarious ways of living,
toiling on the land and at sea, and encouraged emigration on a considerable
scale. About a tenth of Shetland’s population left these shores between 1861
Evaluate the usefulness of Source A as evidence of the reasons for Scottish emigration.
In making a judgement you should refer to:
• the origin and possible purpose of the source
• the content of the source
• your own knowledge
Evaluate the usefulness question
Source A is quite useful as evidence of the reasons for Scottish migration.
The source is useful because it was reported in a popular newspaper ‘Life in Shetland’. This is useful because it is a popular newspaper and it would explain the local feelings surrounding emigration from the Shetlands and reach a wide audience.
The source was written by a journalist and this is more useful because he would have had first-hand experience of the reasons why Shetland people wanted to leave and would provide a more informed opinion. However it may be less useful as it may be one sided and only state the view of the journalist on emigration from Scotland.
The source was written in 1861. This makes the source more useful because it was at the time when many people were emigrating from Scotland to the empire due to the vast improvements in transport.
The purpose of the source is to inform the reader about the hardships of living in Shetland. This is useful because it shows why many people were encouraged to leave the Shetlands to seek a better life abroad.
The source tells us that “Improvements in transport and communication brought about by an industrial and technological revolution gave the Scots knowledge of better conditions overseas .” This is useful because it allowed Scots the opportunity to get to their destination quicker than before and therefore a reason why Scots would leave.
The source also mentions that the introduction of compulsory education under the Education Act of 1872 increased further the awareness of opportunities that were available in Britain and elsewhere This is useful because people were now better educated and could read about the attractions of other countries and were tempted to move.
However, the source fails to mention other reasons why people emigrated from Scotland. The Highland Clearances forced many people in the highlands off their lands, often in a forceful manner leaving them with no choice but to go abroad. Many were also seen as less profitable than sheep or deer.
Furthermore, the source does not mention that the lure of more money and a better way of life was a good reason to leave Scotland. Many overseas countries could offer better wages to Scots who had a skilled trade that was in demand in their new country.
HOMEWORK 1: SCOTTISH MIGRATION
A maximum of 2 marks may be given for answers which refer only to the source or recall
Up to 3 marks for their identification of points from the source that support their judgement; each point from the source needs to be interpreted rather than simply copied from the source. – Quote and explain then link back to the question.
Up to 7 marks for their identification of points of significant omission, based on your own knowledge, that support your judgement
A maximum of 2 marks may be given for answers in which no judgement has been made.
(Judgement means link to the question. eg stating quite fully)
In order to gain full marks for this question YOU MUST EXPLAIN all 9 points that you make. This includes quoting and explaining the quotation and your recall points.
Your recall MUST be relevant to the question
Some useful phrases
Source...partially/partly describes/explains... (question) quite fully.
Firstly the source says"..." Here the source shows/illustrates ...
The source also states that “..." and this links to the question because...
However, there are also points relevant to the question that are not mentioned in the source.
The source fails to mention that...
It also fails to mention that...
In addition, the source omits to mention that...
MIGRATION & EMPIRE
'...Evaluate the usefulness...'
'...Compare the views...'
Do this twice!
Try to find all 4!
Incessant rain had made it impossible for the population of the west coast to harvest the peat on. In this extremity the poor people were, in some places, forced to burn their huts and cottages. They met and drew lots to decide which house was to be destroyed and afterwards in the same manner they decided which of their number was to maintain the poor family deprived of their home. In such situations, the crofts to which the mass of Highlanders had been driven as a result of earlier clearances had long since proved incapable of providing adequately for their occupants. Crofting families survived on a diet consisting largely of potatoes. When that crop failed, hunger became a severe problem. Landlords, practically none of whom now felt any responsibility for the Highlander’s fate, simply organised more evictions in order to make space for sheep.
How fully does Source A explain the reasons for the migration of Scots?
Source A: from James Hunter, Glencoe and the Indians (1996).
Use the source and recalled knowledge.
Source A explains the reasons for the migration of Scots quite fully. The source states “Incessant rain had made it impossible for the population of the west coast to harvest the peat on which they depended for domestic fuel.” This shows that the weather was a problem for those in the west coast of Scotland because the land was not fertile enough and many could not provide food in order to survive and therefore had to leave.
The source also states that “…When that crop failed, hunger became a severe problem.” This shows with the potato crop failing, hunger and survival was a problem and the risk of famine forced many to leave their homes.
Furthermore, the source states that “…as a result of earlier clearances had long since proved incapable of providing adequately for their occupants.” This shows that many of the landlords did not care or look after their occupants after the initial clearances had began and as a result many people had to leave.
However the source fails to mention the importance of the Industrial Revolution and the lure of better wages that also played a role in encouraging Scots to leave for the bigger towns and cities.
Also, the lure of a better lifestyle in the towns and cities encouraged people to leave. Social life and a chance to take part in activities and hobbies was a pull for many.
Also the threat of the advancement of technology in farming meant that many people were being replaced and therefore became unemployed.
The impact of the decline in the fishing industry due to the Russian Revolution in 1917 meant that many fishing villages struggled to compete and as such forced many to look elsewhere.
Although the source mentions the highland clearances, many people were forcibly evicted from their homes for sheep but also for deer hunting as well as landlords sought to make more profit.
Also the introduction of railways enabled more products from elsewhere to reach the highlands as local people and their products suffered and as a result people left to seek employment and a stable wage.
You need to find 4 agreements/disagreements
No recalled knowledge is required in this question!
Provide an overall judgement on how the two sources compare.
This will get you 1 mark.
Compare specific information from the source stating what they agree or disagree on.
Quote a phrase from Source A then match it with a phrase from Source B that agrees or disagrees with it.
You need to do this another times
Summarise each comparison you have made above.
Provide an overall comparison between the two sources - Do they agree or disagree?
EG Overall sources A & B agree/disagree about...(question)
You can gain two marks by simply mentioning if one source mentions something the other does not.
Overall both sources agree/disagree about (question) to a certain extent.
Sources A and B suggests that
However Source B suggests that/ shows more emphasis/ doesn't mention...
Sources A and B agree/disagree that...
Source A states...
Source B agrees/disagrees when it states...
Finally the sources disagree over the safety on immigrants in the mines. Source B states that many Scots complained about the employment of aliens in the mines on the grounds of safety.” However, source C states that “…employers were adamant that the foreigners did not present additional dangers to safety.”
Overall, sources B and C agree to a certain extent that Scots miners were concerned because of the lack of experience of coal mining which the Lithuanians had. The sources also agree that the foreign workers were accused of lowering wages.
However this is some disagreement in the sources that the Scots workers worried that the foreign miners presented a safety risk. The sources also disagree that sometimes the Lithuanians spoke little English and therefore translation could be a problem.
The sources both agree that Scots felt that immigrants had no particular knowledge of working in the mines. Source B states “Some of these aliens may never have seen a coal mine before their arrival in Scotland.” Source C agrees by stating “They were the focus of considerable concern largely because of their ignorance of coal mining.”
The sources also agree that there was a belief that immigrants were lowering wages for Scottish workers. Source B states “There is widespread belief that the foreigners are being used to bring wages down.” Source C agrees by stating “Until the early 1900s at least there is evidence that Lithuanian labour was used to cut wages.”
The sources disagree however that the language barrier was a problem in the mines. Source B states “Their lack of English language is a hazard to themselves and fellow workers. Source C agrees by stating “There is adequate provision to instruct them in their duties, including translations of mining regulations into their own language.”
Source... is quite useful as ( question)
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