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Population and Community Ecology

Chapter 6
by

Aleah Disney

on 24 January 2014

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Transcript of Population and Community Ecology

Population and Community Ecology
Levels of complexity
Population Charcteristics
Growth Models
Population
A population is composed of all individuals that belong to the same species and live in a given area at a particular time.
Community
A community incorporates all of the populations of organisms within a given area.
The study of factors that cause populations to increase or decrease is this science.
Population Size (N)
The total number of individuals withing a defined area at a given time
Population Density
The number of individuals per unit area (or volume, in the case of aquatic organisms) at a given time.
Population Distribution
A description of how individuals are distributed with respect to one another.
Sex Ratio
The ratio of males to females in a population.
Growth Rate
Number of offspring an individual can produce in a given time period, minus the deaths of the individual or its offspring during the same time period
Intrinsic Growth Rate
Under the ideal conditions with unlimited resources, every population has a particular maximum potential for growth which is called this and denoted as "R"
Exponential Growth Model
When the population's future size after some period of time has passed can be estimated.
Population Ecology
Age Structure
A description of how many individuals fit into particular age categories.
Factors Influencing Population Size
Density Dependent Facotors
Influence an individual's probability of survival and reporduction in a manner that depends on the size of the population.
Carrying Capacity
The limit of population growth which slows if the population size increases to much where there are not enough resources to sustain. It is also known as "K."
Density Independent factors
These factors have the same effect on an individual's probability of survival and amount of reproduction at any population size.
J-Shaped Curve
When a curve on a graph is shaped like a "J"
Logistic Growth Model
Logistic Growth Model
Describes a population whose growth is initially exponential but, slows as the population approaches the carrying capacity of the environment.
S-Shaped Curve
When the logistic growth model is graphed and creates an "S" shape.
Variations of Logistic Growth Model
Overshoot
If there is less resources available than needed the population will experience an overshoot by becoming larger than the carrying capacity.
Die-Off
A population Crash; as a result of an overshoot.
Reproductive Strategies and Survivorship Curves
K-Selected Species
Species that fall under the carrying capacity denoted as "K"; these species have certain traits in common: large organisms, reproduce later in life, produce few offspring and care for them.
R-Selected Species
Species that fall under intrinsic growth rate which is denoted to "R" species. Contrast "K" species: don't remain near their carrying capacity, small organisms, reproduce early and frequently with many offspring and no care.
Survivorship Curves
Patterns plotted on a graph where there are three basic curves: labeled type I, type II, and type III
Metapopulations
Corridors
Strips of habitat that connect separated populations, provide some connectedness among the populations.
Metapopulation
A group of spatially distinct populations that are connected by occasional movements of individuals between them.
Community Ecology
The study of competition, predation, mutualism, and commensalism, which determine the survival of a species in a habitat.
Competition
The struggle of individuals to obtain a limiting resource
Competitive Exclusion Principle
Two species competing for the same limiting resource cannot coexist
Resource Partitioning
Two species divide a resource based on differences in the species; behavior or morphology
Community Ecologists,
Competition
Predation
Predation
The use of one species as a resource by another species.
True Predators
Typically kill their prey and consume most of their kill.
Herbivores
Consume plants as prey. Typically eat only a small fraction of a plant without killing it.
Parasites
Live in or on the organisms they consume, "host." Consume only small fractions of their host- rarely causes death of host.
Pathogens
Parasites that cause disease in their host.
Parasitoids
Organisms that lay eggs inside other organisms. Larvae slowly consume host inside out leading to host's death.
Mutualsim
Mutualism
Benefits two interacting species by increasing both species' chances of survival or reproduction.
Commensalism
Commensalism
A type of relationship in which one species benefits but the other is neither harmed nor helped
Symbiotic
The relationship of two species that live in close association with each other.
Keystone Species
Keystone Species
A species that plays a role in its community that is far more important than its relative abundance might suggest
Predator-Mediated Competition
An outbreak of a species that reduces a population which are superior competitors and increases the abundance of the inferior competitors.
Ecosystem Engineers
When a keystone species creates or maintains a habitat for other species.
Composition of a Community
Ecological Succession
The predictable replacement of one group of species by another group of species over time.
Primary Succession
Primary Succession
Occurs on surfaces that are initially devoid of soil.
Secondary Succession
Secondary Succession
Occurs in areas that have been disturbed but have not lost their soil.
Pioneer Species
A species ability to colonize new areas rapidly a grow well in full sunshine.
Species Richness; Habitat Size and Distance
Theory of Island Biogeography
Demonstrates the dual importance of habitat size and distance in determining species richness.
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By Aleah Disney
Full transcript