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Kingdom Protista

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Janelle Maluping

on 3 February 2014

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Transcript of Kingdom Protista

Kingdom Protista
Introduction
Members of Kingdom Protista come from unrelated ancestors. This grouping is referred to by biologists as an artificial grouping. The inclusion of the large number of unicellular organisms under this kingdom is just for convenience.
Protists differ in:
-size
-movement
-method of obtaining energy
Though most protists are microscopic, some can grow to as high as several meters.
3 Groups of Protists
Phototrophs produce their own food.
Heterotrophs feed on other organisms.
Sporozoan are nonmotile and form spores.
Phototrophs vs. Plants
Phototrophs are like plants in that they have chloropyll.
This group includes the algae, dinofagellates, and euglenoids.
Algae
Algae may be green, golden, brown or red.
The chlorophyll in green algae is not masked in contrast to the other members of the group.
The carbohydrate that green algae produce is stored as starch.
They grow on wet, humid rocks or bark of trees, in non-flowing canals, in seas, freshwater bodies and even polluted waterways.
Green algae
Green algae differ in size and shape.
Some are unicellular; others form colonies, sheets, filaments, tubes and ribbons.
Some green algae are edible.
The marine green alga
Caulerpa lentillifera
is eaten fresh as salad.
Golden Algae
Golden algae cells also contain chlorophyll but is masked by yellow pigments.
Members of this group are mostly microscopic. They store food in the form of leucosin oil or chrysolaminarin.
Brown algae
Most members of this group are marine so you can see them just lying around on the beach.
Brown pigments mask their chlorophyll.
Brown algae are the largest of the algae species.
Giant kelps, a member of this group can grow to more than 30 meters in length.
This group of algae store carbohydrate in the form of laminarin.
Leaflike and bubblelike structure called bladders are present in brown algae.
They float near the water surface where light is present.
Red algae
The group differs from the rest of the algae by storing food in the form of floridean starch.
As their name suggests, red pigments mask their chlorophyll.
Red algae can change color depending on whether they are exposed or hidden from light.
Members of the group consist of both microscopic and large multicellular organisms.
There are species in the group that help form coral reefs because of their ability to produce calcium carbonate.
E. muricatum-aource of agar and carageenan
Eucheuma farming-source of livelihood in Central Visayas and Mindanao
Gracilaria salicornia-agar source and edible too
Dinoflagellates
Euglenoids
Most members live in oceans and seas.
Mostly unicellular
Some occur as single organisms, while others form colonies.
Pyrodinium bahamense var. cempressum- cause "red tide" when present in large numbers.
During red tide people should not eat clams and mussels in the affected areas because these organisms might have fed on the dinoflagellates which produce toxins and cause paralysis of the diaphragm that can lead to death.
Euglenoids are microscopic and unicellular.
Euglena belongs to this group.
It lives in freshwater bodies.
Organisms of this group have a whiplike flagellum for movement.
Some euglenoids have chlorophyll.
In the absence of light, it absorbs nutrients from dead organic mater.
Heterotrophs
No permanent structure for movement include the:
-radiolarians
-foraminiferans
-ameoba
Move by means of pseudopods or pseudopodia.
The extensions at the sides of these organisms are formed when changes in the cytoplasmic concentration occur within the cell.
This change cause the cell membrane to contract and enable the organism to make a creeping movement. Pseudopods may form as they are needed.
Entamoeba histolytica is a harmful species of amoeba living in freshwater bodies.
Paramecium moves using the silia attached to parts or all over its body.
Other examples are the Didinium and Vorticella.
Slime and water molds are motile in a certain stage in their life cycles.
-limited movements
-usually colored yellow, orange, or whitish growths that you may see on damp rotting logs
Sporozoan
Cannot move on their own
Free-living and parasitic
Plasmodium are harmful for they cause malaria.
Anopheles mosquito transmits malaria-causing sporozoan.
Giardia lamblia and Trypanosoma gambiense because they affect humans.
G lamblia cause severe diarrhea, while T. Gambiense is responsible for Gambian sleeping sickness.
Trichonympha lives in the intestine of termites.
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