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Initial responses to exercise (cardiovascular and respiratory)

lesson 1

junaid khaliq

on 25 June 2014

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Transcript of Initial responses to exercise (cardiovascular and respiratory)

Sport and Exercise Physiology
Cardiovascular responses
Respiratory responses
Intercostal muscles
Be able to investigate the initial responses of the body to exercise
Heart rate
changes according to body's needs and increases during exercise to deliver extra oxygen to tissues and remove carbon dioxide
Stroke volume

- the amount of blood pumped by one of the ventricles in one contraction
Cardiac output
- the volume of blood pumped out of the heart (left ventricle) in 1 minute
Blood pressure
(BP) - pressure of blood against the walls of the arteries and is a result of the heart contracting and forcing blood into the blood vessels
Cardiovascular responses
Respiratory responses
- Refers to exercise with
. During aerobic exercise oxygen is used to burn fats and glucose to produce ATP
Exercise is movement which works our bodies at a greater intensity then our usual level of daily activity
When we exercise our body goes through various physiological changes to fuel the activity and maintain body equilibrium
Different types of exercise

Aerobic exercise is performed at a lower intensity over a longer period of time which can allow us talk during participation
Sporting examples?

Ideal for increasing power, strength and muscle mass
Aerobic exercise burns fat and calories which can result in weight loss
Aerobic exercise improves cardiovascular fitness by increasing capacity to use oxygen and keeping heart pumping for extended periods
- Refers to exercise
without oxygen
. It is a short, high intensity activity where oxygen demand exceeds oxygen supply.
Different types of exercise
Relies on energy source stored in _______ and is not dependent on oxygen
Generally does not allow us the breath to be able to talk during participation because of the nature of exercise
sporting examples?
A number of changes take place to the cardiovascular system during exercise to ensure that the muscles receive the required amounts of oxygen and nutrients
Prior to exercise

occurs ( stimulates
nervous system to release
During exercise - carbon dioxide Lactic acid
Cardiovascular responses

Cardiovascular responses
Cardiovascular responses
During exercise stroke volume increases progressively and eventually levels off at a higher level until exercise has finished
Fitness and gender are two factors in stroke volume levels
average 70-90 ml
athlete 110 ml
CO (L) = HR (bpm) x SV (L)

heart rate
sympathetic nervous system
parasympathetic nervous system
rest = 5 L p/m
exercise = 30 L p/m

Mechanism act to restrict BP becoming too high
Reading BP requires a
(when heart is contracting ) and
value (when heart is relaxing) - 120/80 mm Hg
Factors include sex, age, race and physical activity
During exercise Systolic BP rises progressively and diastolic BP stays the same or decreases
Increase in breathing rate
Respiratory responses
Respiratory responses
Respiratory responses
Exercise increases oxygen consumption of skeletal muscles. as oxygen consumption increases volume of carbon dioxide also increases
blood oxygen and
blood carbon dioxide = breathing rate
Demands increase in blood flow to skeletal muscles which places demand on RS and CS
System failure = out of breath .. due to inability of heart and CS to move enough blood between lungs and muscles .. not RS's fault
During breathing external intercostal muscles contract - ribs and sternum - upwards + outwards
During exercise forced breathing is used which differs from normal breathing because of __ .. and if exercise is strenuous then abdominal muscles assist with expiration
Muscles involved in the breathing process can utilize 10% oxygen uptake = cramp in muscles = stitch
External intercostal muscles
aid with inspiration during exercise and
internal intercostal muscles
aid with expiration during exercise
Increase in tidal volume
Tidal volume is air ventilated per breath
Exercise increases minute ventilation (gas ventilated per minute)
During exercise oxygen demand occurs by breathing at a faster rate and breathing in more air and breathing out more air during each breath
Respiratory responses
Valsava Manoeuvre
- forcibly exhaling - mouth closed - nose pinched - forcing air into the middle ear
Respiratory responses
Pulmonary ventilation
- the process of air flowing into the lungs and out of lungs. Air flows from high pressure to low pressure region
Response to the body to exercise = concentration of CD the blood following

oxygen utilization
CD level causes respiratory system to send impulses to intercostal muscles
Muscular breathing movements cause three changes in pressure that result in ventilation -
atmospheric P
intra-alveolar P
intrapleural P

Used as a test of cardiac function or to clear the ears when external pressure increases
Initial pressure rise - pressure rises inside chest and forces blood out = BP

Reduced venous return and compensation
Pressure release
Return of cardiac output

Respiratory system is responsible for getting oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body
Oxygen is used to help produce energy during exercise
Energy production also produces a waste product called ______ _______ which needs to be removed from the body
Our body adapts by increasing breathing rate to increase oxygen uptake and remove carbon dioxide
Tidal volume increases during exercise to allow more oxygen to be consumed and meet muscle oxygen demands and returns to normal after exercise
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