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Design in the Anthropocene

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Robert Cowherd

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Transcript of Design in the Anthropocene

Design in the Anthropocene
2009 "Notes on Post-Criticality"
Footprint 4
Second Modernity Seminars:
2007 Reflexivity
2009 Mapping Metis
2010 Designing For Life
2012 Responsive Architecture, Reflexive City
2017 Design in the Anthropocene
Every sentitient being that draws breath, deserves the chance to draw that breath. No creature that has felt thirst or hunger should ever be denied the food and drink that the Earth is able to provide. We cannot deny the weary a seat or a place to lie down without bringing that same fate inevitably upon ourselves or those we care about. Everyone belongs someplace. Every place belongs to someone. We and our places belong to each other. We are joined to the others who belong in our places. We share common pool resources and are beholden to each other through the shared rights and responsibilites of joint stewardship. As with breathing or sleeping, our nested hierarchies of belongings are the basis of nested relationships of rights and responsibilities. The monopoly ownership to the exclusion of all others is an incomplete and imprecise model of the practical realities of the world. The highest and best uses cannot always be attained through exclusion or monopoly exchange.

We all, each of us,

Earth System:
Earth Standard: Instead of the US Dollar or gold, Local exchange currency values are set against the sum total of accessible use values on Earth.
"EarthLeadger" Blockchain: A realtime collective accounting of values managed as a BlockChain "HyperLedger" including geo-locations that can contribute to a Google Earth-based data visualization.
Pokemon Go: Local assets and the decision points in their use/management are represented via mobile phone interfaces.
Pico-Earths: Around 2060, global human population is expected to level off at around 10 billion people. If every person holds 100 shares of the Earth's carrying capacity (a convenient number), their would be 100 shares/person x 10e10 (10 to the 10th power) persons = 10e12 shares. One share is equal to 1/10e12 of the Earth or 10e-12 also known as a "pico-Earth."
Earth Corp.: The Earth's carrying capacity varies over time as a product of changing inputs and outputs, losses from consumption-waste-entropy, technical means of accessing assets, and social-technical means of realizing use value. Evaluating the sum total of the Earth's carrying capacity is the subject of constant audit and annual reporting, as a corporate entity, in the original and more sweeping sense of the term "corporation."
Pico-Earths are held:
By right: a combination of air, water, basic exchange income, and Pico-Earth shares
By inheritance: place (land monetized by use value, not exchange value), and Pico-Earth shares
By earned income: compensation for work
By unearned income: interest and dividends on loans and investments
Pico-Earth dumping rights: air- and water born-pollutants, and solid waste land-fill up to the limit of the Earth capacity to process without impact
Nested Common Resource Pools:
My family shares a home, in a common neighborhood, along a shared street, connected to ever larger feeders in a hierarchy of roadways and railways, within a school community, a water supply, a sewer catchment, a watershed, a public transit district, an electrical power grid, natural gas, phone lines, cable television, internet, cellular service providers, within reach of airports with connections across the globe.Each common resource pool is bounded. Every boundary is potentially demarcated by barriers, thresholds and control points. Within every bounded common resource pool is a shared governance of shareholders.
Parameters:
Every relationship is definable through parameters.

2007 Second Modernity Seminar: Reflexivity
Since the 1990s, the modern-postmodern dichotomy has lost whatever currency it may have once had to a longer view of modernity encompassing the diversity of modern expression from the Enlightenment to the present. In 1994, Beck, Giddens and Lash (Reflexive Modernization) identified the emergence of a more self-critical and self-correcting modernism capable of overcoming the many failures of post-war 20th century modern development without abandoning the ongoing project of modernity. What Giddens, et al. have referred to as “critical” or “reflexive modernization” presents an interesting counterpoint to the ongoing debates between the supposedly outdated approach of “critical architecture” (1980s-2003) and the emerging “post-criticality.” More recently, a series of projects and ongoing efforts by a set of pioneering Dutch architecture, urban design, and landscape architecture firms have been held up as presenting the clearest yet examples of how a more critical “Second Modern” mode of practice might yield more effective resolutions of some of our most pressing problems. These firms operate at the intersection of the new possibilities presented by advances in computation, the rise of participatory processes of conflict resolution, and the growing complexity of problems designers face, particularly in terms of sustainability and social justice.
Moving into the 21st century, many architects, urbanists and theorists are re-examining pre-war modernisms in a new light and positing new directions. While rejecting the cynicism of postmodern approaches, many of its most effective critical methods are being redeployed as tools for refining and redirecting a newly appreciated capacity of design interventions to effectively respond to issues of rapid urbanization, sustainability, and the cultural/political operations of the built environment.
Participants in this seminar will be challenged to develop their skills of active reading, visual analysis, and critical writing to deepen and enrich their personal positions on the relationship between contemporary world conditions and their own work.

2009 Second Modernity Seminar: Mapping Metis
This seminar locates architecture at the intersection of the new tools of the information age and unprecedented global challenges. The topics this course addresses grow directly out of the questions emerging from the competing and converging discourses that have characterized the past two decades of architectural theory and a critical analysis of emerging architectural practices. Grounded firmly in the concrete concerns of architecture, any rigorous examination of present and future possibilities for architecture must of necessity explore territories that might at first seem to extend beyond the tried and true boundaries of architecture. In each case, we will venture only so far as is fruitful and even then, firmly tethered back to the discipline and practice of architecture by a its core concerns and values.
The Spring 2007 advanced seminar: Second Modernity serves as a key reference point for the current seminar. The issues and concerns explored by that intrepid group of students are documented in the publication:
Towards a Second Modernity
(Boston: Wentworth Institute of Technology, 2007). Rather than picking up where that group left off, the current seminar serves more as a “prequel” to focus on new directions in the critique of twentieth century modernism that offer a more specific and solid foundation upon which to construct a future for architectural practice. Specifically, the versions of history that offered us an “end of modernism” followed by period characterized using the term “post modern” is found to be insufficient at best and potentially deeply misleading. The history explored in this seminar focuses more on a critique of “high modernism” as a limited episode within the larger trajectory of modernism which continues on (though in new forms) through the present moment.
The core objective of the seminar is to develop a useful historical critique of high modernism through looking at architecture, the design of the built environment, and related designed human systems, in order to better understand the criteria for moving forward more effectively in the face of multiple simultaneous challenges. Foremost among these challenges is the global climate crisis.
2010 Second Modernity Seminar: Designing For Life

During the post-war period, the ideals and aspirations of early modern movements came to fruition in extensive public housing and urban renewal programs transforming significant portions of almost every city in North America. In the aftermath of the failures of these programs, efforts to employ design to improve the situations of underserved communities have been considered problematic, lost in the shadows cast by failed modernist social projects. One result is that the focus of quality design has inadvertently shifted back towards serving a wealthier private clientele. In the meantime, a very different set of conditions in Latin American cities has fostered a remarkable production of high quality design as one of the key points of entry for gaining ground in the interconnected struggles against social disparities, crime, and fear. The cities of Latin America from Curitiba, Brazil to Bogota, Colombia have become synonymous with cutting edge urban design and now serve as models for new paradigms in the design of cities around the world.
At the same time, architectural theory that had been comfortably divorced from the real-life experiences of a vast majority of the world’s users has justifiably fallen out of fashion in favor of explorations capable of yielding principals and techniques with demonstrable benefits in the everyday life of ordinary people. Some have observed that in many ways, architecture’s recent rejection of “critical theory” signals a return to the most powerful aspirations of early modern movements: design capable of bringing the greatest benefits of new technologies, new materials, new spatial conditions, and new political arrangements to the greatest numbers of people, particularly members of groups that had been previously underserved by architecture and design. Sociologists Beck, Giddens and Lash (1994) have identified this shift as constituting a “second modernity.” More recently architectural critics Lootsma (2000) and Cowherd (2009) have speculated on the prospects for an architecture of second modernity to account for recent emerging, particularly Dutch, architectural production. The work of this seminar is strategically positioned at the intersection of emerging theoretical speculations of a second modernity and the architecture and urbanism of Latin America. Framed in this way, the world-class architectural design emerging from Medellín, Colombia presents a remarkable demonstration of the powerful role that good design can play in opening up previously unimagined opportunities for resolving even the most daunting challenges facing human societies. Rather than existing as an anomaly within the larger context of global architectural practice, how might an understanding of the Medellin projects offer a model for a new social condition of architecture entering the third millennium?
Individual student research projects in recent years have prominently featured questions related to the direct and indirect interconnections between architectural and urban scales. The challenges of globalization, climate change, and demographic realities have in part driven an ongoing shift from the late 20th century obsession with the building scale to an expansion of architectural thinking to the scale of cities, landscapes and regions. Similarly, architecture as a purely formal exercise has necessarily expanded to encompass social, political and economic questions manifesting as distinctly cultural forces shaped by, and generating new forms in, the built environment. This seminar will proceed simultaneously along two parallel and mutually supportive tracks: the first track takes us through a series of readings to explore and map out how several key architectural thinkers have proposed we navigate through our current situation and our likely trajectory into the 21st century, particularly in facing the urgent challenges of rapidly growing cities. The second track will proceed through a series of short exercises designed to help students develop a related individual research agenda that may be complementary to, or in direct support of, a thesis project.
2012 Second Modernity Seminar: Responsive Architecture, Reflexive City

In the 1960s, MIT MediaLab founder Nicholas Negroponte introduced the term “responsive architecture” giving us a language to talk and think about the transformative influence of information technology on architectural experience. This course takes a comprehensive view of responsive architectures through a series of paradigmatic case studies and essays. Examples of “responsive” architecture will be tested against the larger framework of “reflexive” systems and emerging ideas of a “second” modernity. Some of the lines of questioning explored are: Architecture that changes form, cool? But is it useful? What new architectural forms and engagements are possible? Beneficial? Inevitable? What happens when responsive buildings, smart phones, social media, etc. get together? How are responsive architectures leading to dynamically interactive landscapes? Reflexive cities? This class will not just talk the talk of responsiveness, it will walk the walk through weekly student speculations, and discussions of where these ideas and technologies might be leading us in the 21st century.

2017 Second Modernity Seminar: Design in the Anthropocene

In the
12:10 Questions (lecture)
Read
Bibliography
Annotation
Sketch Writing
Prezi Post: Image with 120-word Argument/Insight
160-character Responses
Seminar
Schedule
Thursday 18 Jan Introduction: Modernity and the Post-Criticality Debates

Monday 22 Jan 1 The Second Modernity Hypothesis
Bart Lootsma, "The Second Modernity of Dutch Architecture," introduction SuperDutch: New Architecture in the Netherlands (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2000) 8-25.
Thursday 25 Jan 2 Modern, Modernization, Modernism, Modernity
First Read: Marshall Berman, "Introduction: Modernity–Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow," All That Is Solid Melts Into Air: The Experience of Modernity (New York: Penguin, 1982) 15-36.
Monday 29 Jan 3 History and Modernity
Second Read: Marshall Berman, "Introduction: Modernity–Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow," All That Is Solid Melts Into Air: The Experience of Modernity (New York: Penguin, 1982) 15-36.
Thursday 1 Feb 4 First Modernity: Against the Past

Adolf Loos, "Ornament and Crime (1908)," Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Century Architecture, ed. Ulrich Conrads (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970) 19-24.
Joshua C. Taylor, "Futurism: Dynamism as the Expression of the Modern World," chapter 5 Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics, ed. Herschel B. Chipp (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968) 281-83.
Carlo Carrà, "From Cézanne to Us, The Futurists (1913)," Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics, ed. Herschel B. Chipp (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968) 304-308.
Monday 5 Feb 5 Benjamin: Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction
First Read: Walter Benjamin, “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction,” Illuminations, ed. Hannah Arendt (New York: Schocken Books, 1968) 217-51.
Thursday 8 Feb 6 Art, Political-Economy, Society
Second Read: Walter Benjamin, “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction,” Illuminations, ed. Hannah Arendt (New York: Schocken Books, 1968) 217-51.
Monday 12 Feb 7 Italian Futurism: Speed & Vision

Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, "The Foundation and Manifesto of Futurism (1908)," Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics, ed. Herschel B. Chipp (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968) 284-89.
Umberto Boccioni et al., "The Exhibitors to the Public (1912)," Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics, ed. Herschel B. Chipp (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968) 294-98.
Excerpt from: Umberto Boccioni, "Technical Manifesto of Futurist Sculpture (1912)," Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics, ed. Herschel B. Chipp (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968) starting from “THE STYLE OF THE MOVEMENT” 301-304.
Thursday 15 Feb 8 Russian Suprematism: Beyond the Object to Feeling
Umberto Boccioni et al., "Futurist Painting: Technical Manifesto (1910)," Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics, ed. Herschel B. Chipp (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968) 289-93.
Kasimir Malevich, "Introduction to the Theory of the Additional Element in Painting (1927)," Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics, ed. Herschel B. Chipp (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968) 337-341.
Kasimir Malevich, "Suprematism (1927)," Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics, ed. Herschel B. Chipp (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968) 341-46.
Monday 19 Feb No Class: Presidents’ Day
Thursday 22 Feb 9 German Werkbund: Architecture as the Union of Art and Life
Term Project Topic Area due
Hermann Muthesius, "Aims of the Werkbund (1911)," Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Century Architecture, ed. Ulrich Conrads (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970) 26-27.
Hermann Muthesius/Henry Van de Velde, "Werkbund Theses and Antitheses (1914)," Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Century Architecture, ed. Ulrich Conrads (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970) 28-31.
Bruno Taut, "A Programme for Architecture (1918)," Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Century Architecture, ed. Ulrich Conrads (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970) 41-43.
Work Council for Art, "Under the wing of a Great Architecture (1919)," Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Century Architecture, ed. Ulrich Conrads (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970) 44-45.
Le Corbusier, "Towards a New Architecture: Guiding Principles (1920)," Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Century Architecture, ed. Ulrich Conrads (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970) 59-62.
Monday 26 Feb 10 Dutch De Stijl: The Condition of The Netherlands
Theo van Doesburg, et al., "De Stijl Manifesto 1 (1918)," Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Century Architecture, ed. Ulrich Conrads (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970) 39-40.
Piet Mondrian, "Natural Reality and Abstract Reality (1919)," Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics, ed. Herschel B. Chipp (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968) 321-23.
Theo van Doesburg, "Introduction to Volume 2 of De Stijl (1919)," Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics, ed. Herschel B. Chipp (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968) 324-25.
Theo van Doesburg, "Creative Demands (1922)," Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Century Architecture, ed. Ulrich Conrads (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970) 64-65.
Cornelius van Eesteren, Theo van Doesburg and Gerritt Rietveld, "Manifesto V (1923)," Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Century Architecture, ed. Ulrich Conrads (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970) 66.
Theo van Doesburg and Cornelius van Eesteren, "Towards Collective Building, Commentary on Manifesto V (1923)," Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Century Architecture, ed. Ulrich Conrads (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970) 67.
Theo van Doesburg, "Towards a Plastic Architecture (1924)," Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Century Architecture, ed. Ulrich Conrads (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970) 78-80.
Thursday 1 Mar Midterm Exam
Monday 5 Mar 11 Housing as Social Transformation

Paul Scheerbart, "Glass Architecture (1914)," Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Century Architecture, ed. Ulrich Conrads (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970) 32-33.
Bruno Taut, "Frühlicht (Daybreak) (1921)," Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Century Architecture, ed. Ulrich Conrads (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970) 63.
Congrès Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne (CIAM), "La Sarraz Declaration (1928)," Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Century Architecture, ed. Ulrich Conrads (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970) 109-13.
Thursday 8 Mar 12 Art & Politics
Term Project Thesis due
Peter Selz, "Art and Politics: The Artist and the Social Order," chapter 8 Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics, ed. Herschel B. Chipp (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968) 456-61.
Herschel B. Chipp, ed., "Manifesto Issued by the Syndicate of Technical Workers, Painters, and Sculptors, Mexico City (1922)," Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968) 461-62.
Leon Trotsky, "Literature and Revolution (1923)," Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics, ed. Herschel B. Chipp (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968) 462-66.
Monday 12 Mar No Class: Spring Break
Thursday 15 Mar No Class: Spring Break
Monday 19 Mar 13 High Modernism 1929 to 1968
Term Project Abstract due
Le Corbusier and CIAM, "Charter of Athens: Tenets (1933)," Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-Century Architecture, ed. Ulrich Conrads (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970) 137-45.
Jane Jacobs, “Downtown is for People,” chapter 6 in The Exploding Metropolis, ed. William H. Whyte (Berkeley: University of California, 1993 (1958)) 140-47, 155-68.
Thursday 22 Mar 14 Modern/Postmodern 1968 to 1989

Manfredo Tafuri, “Introduction to Theories and History of Architecture (1968),” Architecture Culture 1943-1968: A Documentary Anthology, ed. Joan Ockman (New York: Columbia Books on Architecture/Rizzoli, 1993) 449-55.
Optional: Mary McLeod, “Architecture and Politics in the Reagan Era: From Post-Modernism to Deconstruction,” Assemblage 8 (February 1989) 22-59.
Monday 26 Mar 15 Reflexive Modernization
Ulrich Beck, Wolfgang Bonss and Christoph Lau, “The Theory of Reflexive Modernization: Problematic, Hypothese and Research Programme,” Theory, Culture & Society 20, no. 2 (2003), 1-4, 19-29.
Thursday 29 Mar 16 Reconstructing Modernity
Anthony Giddens, "Risk, Trust, Reflexivity," chapter 4 Reflexive Modernization: Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order (Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1994) 184-97.
Monday 2 Apr 17 Lootsma’s Second Modernity in Architecture
Bart Lootsma, “Synthetic Regionalization: The Dutch Landscape Toward a Second Modernity,” chapter 16 in Recovering Landscape: Essays in Contemporary Landscape Architecture, ed. James Corner (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999), 251-74.
Thursday 5 Apr 18 Criticality/Postcriticality
Term Project Draft due
George Baird, “‘Criticality’ and Its Discontents,” Harvard Design Magazine, no. 21 (Fall 2004/Winter 2005 2005) 16-21.
Michael Speaks, “After Theory,” Architectural Record (June 2005) 72-75
Monday 9 Apr 19 Theory: Death, Rebirth, or Back to Work?
Robert Somol and Sarah Whiting, “Notes Around the Doppler Effect and Other Moods of Modernism,” Perspecta 33: Mining Autonomy (2002), 72-77.
Thursday 12 Apr 20 Engagement
Dave Hickey, “On Not Being Governed,” Harvard Design Magazine, Urban Design Now, no. 25 (Fall 2006/Winter 2007) 74-76.
Michelle Provoost and Wouter Vanstiphout, ““Facts on the Ground” Urbanism From Mid-Road to Ditch,” Harvard Design Magazine, Urban Design Now, no. 25 (Fall 2006/Winter 2007) 36-42.
Monday 16 Apr No Class: Patriots’ Day
Thursday 19 Apr Workshop: Assembling the Colloquium Reader
Term Project Final Paper due
Monday 23 Apr Conclusion: Next Modernities
Thursday 26 Apr Colloquium: Second Modernity and the Architecture of Engagement
Monday 30 Apr Final Exam
Schedule
1 M 19 Jan No Class: Reverend Doctor Martin Luther King, Junior Day
W 21 Jan Introduction:

2 M 26 & W 28 Jan 1 When the Map Becomes the Territory
Topic Area
James C. Scott, “Nature and Space” chapter 1 in Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998) 11-52.
Further Reading
Ando Linklater, Measuring America (New York: Plume Books (Penguin), 2003).
Jean Baudrillard, Simulations (New York: Semiotext[e], 1983).
3 M 2 & W 4 Feb 2 Social Value of Land
Topic Map
Garrett Hardin, “The Tragedy of the Commons,” Science 162 (new series), www.jstor.org accessed 9 February 2001, no. 3859 (13 December 1968), 1243-48.
James C. Scott, "Cities, People, and Language," chapter 2 Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998) 53-83.
Further Reading
Raymond Williams, "Enclosures, Commons and Communities," chapter 10 The Country and the City (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973) 96-107.
E. P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class (New York: Penguin Books, 1979 (1963)).
4 M 9 & W 11 Feb 3 Politics of Culture
Bibliography
David Swartz, "Habitus: A Cultural Theory of Action," chapter 5 Culture & Power: The Sociology of Pierre Bourdieu (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997) 95-116.
James C. Scott, "Authoritarian High Modernism," chapter 3 Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998) 87-102.
5 M 16 Feb No Class: Washington’s Birthday
W 18 Feb 4 Architecture | Structure | Mentality
Abstract
Annex Central 202
Sanford Kwinter, “The Judo of Cold Combustion,” preface to Atlas of Novel Tectonics, ed. Jesse Reiser (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006), 12-15.
Jesse Reiser, “Introduction,” Atlas of Novel Tectonics (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006) 18-35.
6 M 23 & W 25 Feb 5 Critique of Modernism Annotated Bibliography
James C. Scott, “The High-Modernist City: An Experiment and a Critique” chapter 4 in Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998) 103-46.
Further Reading
Marshall Berman, All That Is Solid Melts Into Air: The Experience of Modernity (New York: Penguin, 1982).
7 M 2 & W 4 Mar 6 Architectural Politics of the Spectacle
Outline
Simon Sadler, “Introduction” and "Formulary for a New Urbanism: Rethinking the City," chapter 2 The Situationist City (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999) 1-12, 69-95.
Further Reading
Guy Debord, The Society of the Spectacle, trans. Donald Nicholson-Smith (New York: Zone Books, 1995).
M 9 & W 11 Mar No Class: Spring Break
8 M 16 & W 18 Mar 7 Everyday Life Annotated
Outline
Michel de Certeau, The Practice of Everyday Life, trans. Steven Rendall (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984).
Further Reading
Henri Lefebvre, The Critique of Everyday Life, trans. John Moore (London: Verso, 1991).
John Chase, John Kaliski, and Margaret Crawford, eds., Everyday Urbanism (New York: Monacelli Press, 1999).
9 M 23 & W 25 Mar 8 Metis
James C. Scott, “Thin Simplifications and Practical Knowledge: Metis” chapter 9 in Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998) 309-41.
10 M 30 Mar & W 1 Apr 9 Reflexivity
Draft
Gerard Delanty, "Reflexive Modernization: Beck and Giddens," chapter 6 Social Theory in a Changing World: Conceptions of Modernity (Cambridge, UK; Malden, MA: Polity Press; Blackwell, 1999) 148-78.
Further Reading
Ulrich Beck, Anthony Giddens and Scott Lash, Reflexive Modernization: Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order (Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1994).
Ulrich Beck, Wolfgang Bonss and Christoph Lau, “The Theory of Reflexive Modernization: Problematic, Hypotheses and Research Programme,” Theory, Culture & Society 20, no. 2 (April 2003), 1-34.
11 M 6 & W 8 Apr 10 Sustainability
Robert Cowherd, “Theory in an Age of Global Crisis,” journal article manuscript.
Further Reading
Martin Wackernagel and W. Rees, Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact On the Easrth (Gabriola Island, British Columbia: New Society Publishers, 1997).
12 M 13 & W 15 Apr 11 Social Parametrics
Final
Patrik Schumacker, “Smart Work: Patrik Schumacher on the Growing Importance of Parametrics,” RIBA Journal 115, no. 9 (September 2008).
Patrik Schumacker, “Parametricism as Style: Parametricist Manifesto,” 11th Architectural Biennale (Venice 2008).
Further Reading
Michael Meredith, Aranda-lasch, and Mutsuro Sasaki, eds., From Control to Design: Parametric/Algorithmic Architecture (Barcelona: Actar, 2008).
13 M 20 Apr No Class: Patriots’ Day
W 22 Apr Forum: Mapping Metis
14 M 27 & W 29 Apr Charette: Data Spatialization
Supplemental Resources
Edward R. Tufte, Envisioning Information (Graphics Press, 1990).
Edward R. Tufte, Visual Explanations: Evidence and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative (Graphics Press, 1997).
Edward R. Tufte, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information (Graphics Press, 2001).
Edward R. Tufte, Beautiful Evidence (Graphics Press, 2006).
Bruce Mau and Jennifer Leonard, Massive Change (London: Phaidon Press, 2004).
Rem Koolhaas and Bruce Mau, Small, Medium, Large, Extra-Large: Office for Metropolitan Architecture, ed. Jennifer Sigler (New York: Monacelli Press, 1995).
Rem Koolhaas et al., Mutations (Barcelona; Bordeaux: Actar; Arc en Réve Centre d’Architecture, 2001).
Paola Antonelli, ed., Design and the Elastic Mind (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2008).
Schedule
1 Tue 19 Jan Introduction: Medellín as Second Modernity
Thu 21 Jan Design Research
George Orwell, “Politics and the English Language,” Horizon 13, no. 76 (April 1946), 252-65.
2 Tue 26 Jan 1 Modernity
Marshall Berman, “Introduction: Modernity-Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow,” All That Is Solid Melts Into Air: The Experience of Modernity (New York: Penguin, 1982), 15-36.
Eric Mumford, Introduction and chapter 1 “CIAM 2, Frankfurt, 1929: The Existenzminimum” (excerpt), The CIAM Discourse on Urbanism, 1928-1960 (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000), 1-7, 27-44.
Further Reading
James C. Scott, Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998).
Thu 28 Jan A Topic Area
3 Tue 2 Feb 2 Utopia/Dystopia
Anthony Flint, chapter 5 “The Lower Manhattan Expressway,” Wrestling With Moses: How Jane Jacobs Took On New York’s Master Builder and Transformed the American City (New York: Random House, 2009), 136-78.
Further Reading
James C. Scott, “The High-Modernist City: An Experiment and a Critique” chapter 4 in Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998) 103-46.
Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961).
Robert A. Caro, The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York (New York: Vintage Books, 1974).
Thu 4 Feb B Topic Map
Mapping Ideas in Scholarship
4 Tue 9 Feb 3 Squatting
Robert Neuwirth, “Prologue: Crossing the Tin Roof Boundary Line,” and chapter 9 “Proper Squatters, Improper Property,” Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters, A New Urban World (New York: Routledge, 2005) 1-22, 281-306.
Further Reading
The Challenge of the Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements 2003 (Nairobi: United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat), 2003).
Jeremy Seabrook, “Myths of the Megacities,” chapter 1 In the Cities of the South: Scenes From a Developing World (London: Verso, 1996), 5-15.
Lawrence J. Vale, Reclaiming Public Housing: A Half Century of Struggle in Three Public Neighborhoods (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002).
Thu 11 Feb C Bibliography
Missouri Rules: The Demonstration Effect
5 Tue 16 Feb 4 Slums
Mike Davis, chapter 1, “The Urban Climateric,” and chapter 6, “Slum Ecology,” Planet of Slums (London: Verso, 2006) 1-19, 121-50.
Further Reading
Mike Davis, “Planet of Slums: Urban Involution and the Informal Proletariat,” New Left Review 26 (March-April 2004) 5-34.
Stephen Graham and Simon Marvin, “Fortress Spaces: Master-Planned Gated Enclaves Across the World,” and “Beyond Spaces of Secession: Marginalised Spaces, Network Ghettoes and the ‘Poverty of Connections,’” in Splintering Urbanism: Networked Infrastructures, Technological Mobilities and the Urban Condition (London: Routledge, 2001) 267-83, 287-97.
Thu 18 Feb Moment of Truth Analysis
6 Tue 23 Feb 5 Socio-Spatial Economics
Devisari Tunas, "Living and Surviving in Kebon Kacang," chapter 5 The Spatial Economy in the Urban Informal Settlement (Delft: International Forum on Urbanism, 2008) 145-75.
Further Reading
Patricia Marquez and Henry Gomez-Samper, “From Barrio Dweller to Entrepreneur: Informal Urban Microenterprises in Caracas,” New Urbanisms 6 Caracas Litoral, Venezuela: Nuevos Urbanismos 6 El Litoral de Caracas, Venezuela, eds. Richard Plunz et al. (New York: Columbia University Urban Design Program, 2005) 40-51.
Jeremy Seabrook, "Myths of the Megacities," chapter 1 In the Cities of the South: Scenes From a Developing World (London: Verso, 1996) 5-15.
Thu 25 Feb D Annotated Bibliography
Jaime Lerner’s Curitiba & Enrique Penalosa’s Bogota
7 Tue 2 Mar 6 Spatial Hedonomics
Enrique Peñalosa, “Politics, Power, Cities,” The Endless City: The Urban Age Project, eds. Ricky Burdett and Deyan Sudjic (London: Phaidon, 2007) 307-19.
Charles Montgomery, “Bogota’s Urban Happiness Movement: From Living Hell to Living Well,” Globe and Mail (22 June 2007).
Further Reading
Mark Kramer, Dispossessed: Life in Our World’s Urban Slums (Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 2006).
Patricia Schnitter Castellanos, José Luis Sert Y Colombia: De la Carta de Atenas a una Carta del Hábitat (Medellín: Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana/Area Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá, 2007).
Thu 4 Mar E Feedback on Annotated Bibliography
Hedonomics of Public Space
9 & 11 Mar No Class: Spring Break
8 Tue 16 Mar 7 Reflexivity
Robert Cowherd, “Notes on Post-criticality: Towards an Architecture of Reflexive Modernisation,” Footprint: Delft School of Design Journal: Agency in Architecture: Reframing Criticality in Theory and Practice 4 (Spring 2009), 65-76.
Further Reading
Arie Graafland, “Urban Mapping,” Space Fighter: The Evolutionary City (Barcelona: Actar, 2007), 29-61.
Bart Lootsma, “Synthetic Regionalization: The Dutch Landscape Toward a Second Modernity,” chapter 16 in Recovering Landscape: Essays in Contemporary Landscape Architecture, ed. James Corner (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999), 251-74.
Ulrich Beck, Anthony Giddens and Scott Lash, Reflexive Modernization: Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order (Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1994).
Ulrich Beck, Wolfgang Bonss and Christoph Lau, “The Theory of Reflexive Modernization: Problematic, Hypotheses and Research Programme,” Theory, Culture & Society 20, no. 2 (April 2003), 1-34.
Gerard Delanty, "Reflexive Modernization: Beck and Giddens," chapter 6 Social Theory in a Changing World: Conceptions of Modernity (Cambridge, UK; Malden, MA: Polity Press; Blackwell, 1999) 148-78.
Thu 18 Mar F Draft Bibliographic Essay
Medellín and Second Modernity
9 Tue 23 Mar 8 Metis
James C. Scott, “Thin Simplifications and Practical Knowledge: Metis” chapter 9 in Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998) 309-41.
Further Reading
James C. Scott, Preface and “Sites and Carriers of the Hidden Transcript: Degrees of Freedom,” Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992), ix-xiii, 120-24.
Felix Zwoch, “Five Versions of the In/Formal,” Informal City: Caracas Case, eds. Alfredo Brillembourg, Kristin Feireiss, and Hubert Klumpner (Munich: Prestel, The German Federal Cultural Foundation, and Caracas Urban Think Tank, 2005) 47-50.
Elmar Altvater, “Globalization and the Informalization of the Urban Space,” Informal City: Caracas Case, eds. Alfredo Brillembourg, Kristin Feireiss, and Hubert Klumpner (Munich: Prestel, The German Federal Cultural Foundation, and Caracas Urban Think Tank, 2005) 51-55.
John Beardsley, “Urban Acupuncture—Caracas: Urban Think Tank,” Harvard Design Magazine: Can Designers Improve Life in Non-Formal Cities?, no. 28 (Spring/Summer 2008) 38-39.
Thu 25 Mar G Feedback on Bibliographic Essay
Bill Boehm: Vernacular as Informal Architecture
10 Tue 30 Mar 9 Resilient Systems
William E. Rees, “Ecological Footprints and Appropriated Carrying Capacity: What Urban Economics Leaves Out,” chapter 14 in The Earthscan Reader in Rural-Urban Linkages, ed. Cecilia Tacoli (London: Earthscan, 2006) 285-97.
Guy Battle, “Sustainable Cities,” The Endless City: The Urban Age Project, eds. Ricky Burdett and Deyan Sudjic (London: Phaidon, 2007) 386-93.
Further Reading
Martin Wackernagel and William E. Rees, Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact On the Earth (Gabriola Island, British Columbia: New Society Publishers, 1997).
Thu 1 Apr H Final Bibliographic Essay
Reflexive Systems and Sustainability
11 Tue 6 Apr 10 Informality as Reflexive Architecture
James Holston and Teresa Caldiera, “Urban Peripheries and the Invention of Citizenship,” Harvard Design Magazine, no. 28 (Spring/Summer 2008) 18-23.
David Gouverneur and Oscar Grauer, “Urban Connectors: Fostering a Non-Hierarchical Integration of Formal and Informal Settlements,” Harvard Design Magazine: Can Designers Improve Life in Non-Formal Cities?, no. 28 (Spring/Summer 2008) 24-30.
Further Reading
Geetam Tiwari, “Informality and Its Discontents,” The Endless City: The Urban Age Project, eds. Ricky Burdett and Deyan Sudjic (London: Phaidon, 2007) 348-51.
Saskia Sassen, “Seeing Like a City,” The Endless City: The Urban Age Project, eds. Ricky Burdett and Deyan Sudjic (London: Phaidon, 2007) 276-89.
Thu 8 Apr I Publication Submission
Partnered Editing work
12 Tue 13 Apr Charrette: Data Spatialization and Body Clouds
Edward R. Tufte, Envisioning Information (Graphics Press, 1990).
Edward R. Tufte, Visual Explanations: Evidence and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative (Graphics Press, 1997).
Edward R. Tufte, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information (Graphics Press, 2001).
Edward R. Tufte, Beautiful Evidence (Graphics Press, 2006).
Bruce Mau and Jennifer Leonard, Massive Change (London: Phaidon Press, 2004).
Paola Antonelli, ed., Design and the Elastic Mind (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2008).
Thu 15 Apr Charrette: Proposals
13 Tue 20 Apr Charrette: Desk Crits
Thu 22 Apr Charrette: Desk Crits
14 Tue 27 Apr J Charrette: Exhibition Submission
Thu 29 Apr Forum: Design For Life
Course Calendar
1 Thu 10 May Second Modernity?
2 Tue 15 May 1 Reflexivity Blog Response due
Robert Cowherd, “Notes on Post-criticality: Towards an Architecture of Reflexive Modernisation,” Footprint: Delft School of Design Journal: Agency in Architecture: Reframing Criticality in Theory and Practice 4 (Spring 2009), 65-76.
Thu 17 May 1
3 Tue 22 May 2 Phenomenology Blog Response Due
Steven Holl, Juhani Pallasmaa and Alberto Perez-Gomez, Questions of Perception: Phenomenology of Architecture (San Francisco: William K. Stout, 2005 (1994)).
Thu 24 May 2
4 Tue 29 May 3 Cybernetics Blog Response due
Thu 31 May 3
5 Tue 5 Jun 4 Responsive Architecture Blog Response due
Philip Beesley, Hayley Isaacs and Pernilla Ohrstedt, eds., Hylozoic Ground (Cambridge, Ontario: Riverside Architectural Press, 2010).
Thu 7 Jun 4
6 Tue 12 Jun 5 Sociography: The Social Operation of Space Blog Response due
Robert Cowherd, “Sociography: The Spatial Operation of Social Forces,” unpublished manuscript (November 2011).
Thu 14 Jun 5
7 Tue 19 Jun 6 Traffic Blog Response due
Tom Vanderbilt, Traffic (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2008).
Thu 21 Jun 6
8 Tue 26 Jun 7 Games People Play Blog Response due
Eric Gordon, Adriana de Souza e Silva, Net Locality: Why Location Matters in a Networked World (Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011).
Jane McGonigal, Reality is Broken: Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can Change the World (New York: Penguin Press, 2011).
Arie Graafland, “Urban Mapping,” Space Fighter: The Evolutionary City, eds. B. Batstra, Arie Graafland, Camillo, and Winey Maas (Barcelona: Actar, 2007), 29-61.
Kevin C. Desouza, “Leveraging the Wisdom of Crowds Through Participatory Platforms,” Planetizen (5 March 2012).
Thu 28 Jun 7
9 Tue 3 Jul No Class:
Thu 5 Jul No Class: Summer Break
10 Tue 10 Jul 8 Informality with guest instructor Bill Boehm Blog Response due
Charles Montgomery, “Bogota’s Urban Happiness Movement: From Living Hell to Living Well,” Globe and Mail (22 June 2007).
Thu 12 Jul 8
11 Tue 17 Jul 9 Networked Space Blog Response due
Helen Nissenbaum and Karzys Varnelis, Networked Spaces, Reconstituted Subjects, Situated Technologies Pamphlets 9 (New York: Architectural League of New York, 2012).
Thu 19 Jul 9
12 Tue 24 Jul 10 Reflex City Blog Response due
Thu 26 Jul 10
13 Tue 31 Jul Workshop 1: Editing
Thu 2 Aug Workshop 2: Book Production
14 Tue 7 Aug Forum
Further Reading:
Ulrich Beck, Wolfgang Bonss and Christoph Lau, “The Theory of Reflexive Modernization: Problematic, Hypothese and Research Programme,” Theory, Culture & Society 20, no. 2 (2003), 1-33.
Ulrich Beck, Anthony Giddens and Scott Lash, Reflexive Modernization: Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order (Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1994).
David Grahame Shane, Recombinant Urbanism: Conceptual Modeling in Architecture, Urban Design, and City Theory (West Sussex, England: Wiley-Academy, 2005).
Michel Foucault, “Of Other Spaces: Utopias and Heterotopias,” Architecture Culture 1943-1968: A Documentary Anthology, ed. Joan Ockman (New York: Columbia Books on Architecture/Rizzoli, 1993) 419-26.
Lieven De Cauter and Michiel Deheane, eds., Heterotopia and the City: Public Space in a Postcivil Society (New York: Routledge, 2008).
Georges Teyssot, “Heterotopias and the History of Spaces,” Architecture Theory Since 1968, ed. K. Michael Hays (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000) 296-305.
The most authoritative website on the Anthropocene:
http://anthropocene.info/anthropocene-timeline.php
Anthropocene on the TED Radio Hour:
http://www.npr.org/programs/ted-radio-hour/494774287/anthropocene
Generation Anthropocene Podcast of Stanford University:
https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/generation-anthropocene/id526637040?mt=2
Wentworth's Copy of An Inconvenient Truth
http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?vid=1&sid=e5ffac46-5fce-4c87-95e8-77a4229af33e%40sessionmgr4006&hid=4208&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=wit.815201&db=cat04639a
Additional Resources:
1 Anthropocene
The Reading:
Johan Rockström's 2015
Big World, Small Planet
Documentary on the 4.6 Billion-Year history of the Earth:

2014 People's Climate March, New York
Johan Rockstöm: tipping point
Roy Scranton: delusional sham
Growth Within Limits?
Not so much "growth" as "economic development"
We use growth to connect with the aspirations of the global majority.
The more nuanced articulation is that we can grow economically
without limitation
within the impact limits established by the 9 planetary boundaries.
We can limit one set of factors associated with impacts while retaining the unlimited potential for economic growth expanding according to the remaining factors.
Move from a extract-produce-consume-waste model to a recover-produce-consume-recover-repeat.
World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)?
It is 200 companies together representing 10 percent of the global economy including oil and automobile industry giants.
Each company exhibits a different degree of commitment to making this transition, but the leadership demonstrates complete commitment.
Post Nature:
Bruna Latour's 2013 "Inside Planetary Boundaries: Gaia's Estate" the final lecture in his "Facing Gaia" Series, Edinborurgh University
2 Collapses
3 Solastalgia
4 Capitalism v. The Climate
5 Designing For Life
6 Decision Space
7 Games People Play
9 Earth Game, Earth Standard, Earth Bank, Earth Inventory, Operating System Earth, Earth, Inc.
10 Structure and Agency
Robert Reich's 2013 Inequality for All
Thomas Pikety's 2014
Capital in the 21st Century
inequality
Johan Rockström's 2015
Big World, Small Planet
It is no longer the Earth Sciences. We now say "Earth System."
Love your Monsters: Post-Environmentalism and the Anthropocene by Ted Nordhous and Michael Schelenburger
8 Triumph of the Commons
11 Capitalism™ and the "Competition"
https://globalchallenges.org/en

"It is difficult for a man to know something
if his ability to earn a living
depends on him not knowing it."
—Upton Sinclair
"We have met the enemy and he is us." —Pogo
"We're not
in
the traffic jam,
we
are
the traffic jam."
—anonymous
Lipo & Hunt's 2011 Debunking of Diamond's Easter Island Thesis:
http://www.marklynas.org/2011/10/the-easter-island-ecocide-never-happened-response-to-jared-diamond/
"The chiefs of the rival clans were more interested in building bigger statues than maintaining the forests," Diamond said. "They weren't stupid. A chief's prestige was based on building bigger and bigger statues. If he didn't build the statues, he would lose prestige. They were short-sighted in their decisions, but rational in their thinking.." https://today.duke.edu/2006/02/diamond.html
Acemoglu & Robinson's 2013
Why Nations Fail
Karl Thompson's Synopsis of
Why Nations Fail
https://revisesociology.com/2016/08/05/why-nations-fail-summary/
http://www.earthinc.org/earthinc.php?page=principles
Epstein: Two thirds of the cities we will live in in 2030 have not yet been built.
Charves: We've already transformed the world, we can transform it again but this time more deliberately in a positive way. Economic incentives need to work in favor of positive planetary outcomes.
Castro: Are we competing with other species? What good is the "Anthro" part of the "Anthropocene" if the "Anthro" is the problem itself? Isn't human extinction the solution?
Maloney: No matter the science or the position, the flaw is the way that our system has set up Development. Economics running roughshod over the elements that our survival depends on cannot continue.
Economic incentives need to work in favor of positive planetary outcomes.
Battari: The top 20 percent wealthiest consumers are 80 percent of the problem. A sliding scale can subsidize innovation for the rest.
Ozone Case: Regulations compelled changes in business practices that incentivize innovation.
Tragedy of the Commons
Paying for Roads: http://www.its.ucla.edu/infographics/?mc_cid=92afb64068&mc_eid=cc6e1ea4c7

Roberts
: Nations need to establish inclusive economic institutions for their general populations
in order to thrive, [keeping in mind] this establishment needs to circumvent the systems that are
already in place
and causing potentially irreversible damage.
Gautier
: Greed will be the deciding factor towards our societal survival, but it is one that needs to be addressed now with a collaborative mindset.
Roy Scranton's October 2016
New York Times
Article, "When the Next Hurricane Hits Texas" http://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/09/opinion/sunday/when-the-hurricane-hits-texas.html
Samman:
The real power is not in the money itself that is to be identified as a short term benefit, but is in the
education
to develop a country that can
sustain for the long run.
Therefore, to prevent long term result in poverty and failure of nations, the solution would be to transform extractive economic institutions into inclusive institutions.

Maloney:
Short term development which leads to prosperity for some at the expense of
long term
sustainability which supports the masses is the greatest catalyst for a nation’s (or humanity’s) demise.
Charves:
The history of systemic/institutional collapse has uncovered a trend indicating that system failure is most often a result of a discrepancy between
long and short-term
parameters for development. When looking at the collapse of anything, short term thinking appears to conflict with long term thinking, and vice versa.
Bubjaku
: Extractive institutions prevent innovation, investment, as well as incentives to save, causing nations to fail to this day. It is necessary for people to become more educated and know that the real power is within each individual and it becomes even stronger when
we all unite
.
Nauru Island
Collective-Interested v. Self-Interested
The key insight of this is to categorize an idea of adaptive systems of assembly from all of the non-productive long-term systems that currently impact our future success, contributing to collapse.
Epstein
: The collective collapse of any establishment has proven to be a difference between conflicts of
original
foundation and
future
development. We are
established
but, how do we recreate
long-term systems
in an already established infrastructure that understands the difference between foundation and second iteration and has little potential for meaningful reaction?
Maloney: If you want thousand college professors and world teach 20,000 students around the world and those students go on to become
professionals they're responsible for taking leadership position
that allow them to take action to address the long-term challenges, then maybe there's hope for system change.
Charves: You are missing the incentive part.
Bottari: The
education
of the masses on [systems] aspects of economic, social, environmental and political [forces that produce] manifestations are crucial to providing/maintaining inclusive institutions that
ultimately
seek greater prosperity for all.
Stanford University Radio Show "Generation Anthropocene" interview of Roy Scranton: http://www.stanford.edu/group/anthropocene/cgi-bin/wordpress/learning-to-die-in-the-anthropocene/
Roy Scranton's interview with Naomi Klein in
Rolling Stone
:
"...the biggest problems the Anthropocene poses are precisely those that have always been at the root of humanistic and philosophical questioning: “What does it mean to be human?” and “What does it mean to live?” In the epoch of the Anthropocene, the question ...is universalized and framed in scales that boggle the imagination... What does one life mean in the face of species death or the collapse of global civilization? How do we make meaningful choices in the shadow of our inevitable end?"
Quoting the 18th-century Samurai manual by Yamamoto Tsunetomo: “Meditation on inevitable death should be performed daily.”
"I’d tell myself that I didn’t need to worry, because I was already dead. The only thing that mattered was that I did my best to make sure everyone else came back alive. 'If by setting one’s heart right every morning and evening, one is able to live as though his body were already dead,' wrote Tsunetomo, 'he gains freedom in the Way.'”
Roy Scranton's 2013
New York Times
Opinion article "Learning to Die in the Anthropocene": https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/11/10/learning-how-to-die-in-the-anthropocene/?_r=0
A New Shape Global Challenge Competition (23 May)
Roy Scranton on the 2013 UN Climate Change March at minute 15:55 and "Death. Death. Death." at minute 32:30 of his bookstore reading:
https://www.bfi.org/about-fuller/big-ideas/world-game
http://www.osearth.com/

https://www.bfi.org/challenge
https://www.bfi.org/dymaxion-forum/2017/01/call-proposals-2017-fuller-challenge
2017 Fuller Challenge (31 March)
R. Buckminster Fuller talks about his "World Game": https://music.amazon.com/albums/B000S9AT6S?ref=dm_sh_a7b3-91bc-dmcp-3cf5-c17a4
Epstein:
We must learn how to come to grips with the seriousness of our global climate, in order to feel its impact and make productive change, through eternal occurrence, humanities or other measures. Dots must be connected, human impact reengaged. Rather than imagining politics in a world on fire, we must be the fire of politics.
Naomi Klein, "It just comes down to this core question: "Is hyper-competition going to rule our world, or is cooperation going to rule our world?"
Bubjaku:
[HUMANS] Instead of telling ourselves nothing will happen, or that there is nothing that the planet cannot handle, it is necessary for the humanity, whose lives depend on this planet's existence, to stop lying to themselves with irrelevant facts and instead to figure out a way
to unite as many of the world's population together in order to create an engine for positive change.
Gautier:
We cannot keep pushing planetary death towards the back end of the agenda. Our market will not survive without the people that sustain it, and those people, according to this article, will be dead "when the next hurricane hits". Therefore, the beginning of a successful method is to show everyone the planetary impact of everything they do or use, and everything they buy.
Roberts:
Our current state of thinking has been molded by history to represent a reactionary response, and given that we are such a global force (the collective of humanity) that method is highly indicative that a proactive change is necessary. This large scale systematic change can progressively change how the world engages environmental disaster.
Roy Scranton interviewed Naomi Klein in a 2014 piece for
The Rolling Stone
: http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/we-need-hope-and-fear-in-equal-measure-an-interview-with-naomi-klein-20140922
Samman:
To address the issue of natural disasters and move towards a more sustainable environment, the humanitarian mission must align short-term benefits for an individual with the long-term benefits for all.
Bottari:
Planetary extinction is an issue that is being ignored by capitalist interests and our hyper-competitive nature, the challenge becomes shifting our competitive capitalist system to one that is focused on
cooperation
in order to ensure life on planet earth.
Charves: The planet sees no dotted lines
– As a pure product of human intervention, the division of system earth’s factors have promoted a culture of competition rather than cooperation. In the face of a rapidly approaching destination of planetary demise, a systematic shift to a
cooperative process
, across ‘boarders’, may have the strength to alter earth’s course, [is extremely] unlikely – a culture of acceptance is a more probable transformation. [How do we transition to a peaceful death?]
Maloney:
To save us from the planet which has been plagued by our own hand, we must invent a mechanism to shift the mentality of the entire population and unite all humans in abandoning capitalism, and the politics which support it, and adopting new systems that combat climate change.
Epstein: Rusting the ice, we are the polar bear

Insight:
Limitless growth is no longer a viable basis for our operating system, the new operating system is driven by long-term growth within planetary boundaries, working through reciprocity, employing people, reinforcing ownership of actions, and sustaining the environment.

Argument:
We will either be changed by our environment through force or we will change our environment in favor of working for us. Through systems of control, with long term planetary success at the wheel, we can retake our earth in a forward moving manner. Discussed through Klein's work humans are those responsible as operators of the machine, natural and otherwise. Through many small mechanisms one large operation will be able to function over boundaries and through judgment for the collaborative benefits of earth's inhabitants reflecting a new wheel house unlike anything we have seen since our last industrial revolution.
`
Roberts: Social mobilization and public outcry, enact change in large movements especially in times of unrest. It is that nature that we can capitalize upon to engage large scale system change.


If we can put our fear of failure aside, global warming can be perceived as a cause that advocates a huge opportunity to build a sustainable world rather than a crisis.
Bottari: A ground-up resistance of individuals acting in unison is the mode to enact large-scale systematic change.
Bubjaku
: The human species must cooperate and collaborate, even if it means reorganizing the intertwined systems (economic, political, cultural, social, etc.) to solve the biggest challenge of our time, which is climate change.
Prisoners' Dilemma
Polder Mentality
Adrian Geuze's 1995 "In the Polder, there is a House"
Tragedy of the Commons: Garrett Hardin 1968

Charves:
The equilibrium of our planetary system is at stake – we anthropoceans now face environmental and economic [sub]system imbalances of unprecedented inertia and intricacy – the task is to divert the force of inevitable planetary collapse, bearing a mass so great that it may only be altered by the complex aggregation of smaller entites – the individual activist is weak, yet a rise to the collective network of activism bears the ultimate strength of societal complexity.
2004 Medellín Mayor Sergio Fajardo on "Fear and Hope" at Wentworth in 2008
Gautier-Castro: We need to shift the direct source of capitalist income into one that produces the improvement of our planet, and, most importantly, improves the lives of the majority, and becomes a driver of global education.
What then must we do?
Bottari:
Social mobilization
(virtual and physical) to form a new majority resistance
Bubjaku: 1.
mentality
, 2. overthrow the capitalist)
Gautier-Castro: Monetize
long term benefits
(trees)
Epstein: Give people a taste/sense/immediate
reward for considering long-term
benefits.
Charves: Leverage
instant global interconnectivity
to take command at a scale that matches the challenge.
Harvard Lecture on Reflexivity in Medellín
A Republican Carbon Tax?
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2017/02/07/senior-republican-leaders-propose-replacing-obamas-climate-plans-with-a-carbon-tax/?utm_term=.8b0de4358e8d
Carbon Tax v. Cap And Trade?
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/jan/31/carbon-tax-cap-and-trade
Nudge Games
Thaler & Sunstein's Nudge
Maloney: Given Klein’s precedents of social movements which engaged the public and prompted popularly demanded social reform, the current planetary crisis can be mitigated with economic reform that is popularly supported by people and industries who are morally or pragmatically compelled to action.
Roberts:
The method of applying architectural responses as models of social reconstruction allows for those living within that specific place to establish what they want and need in order for their community to thrive and integrate cohesively.
Samman:
Architecture can be used as a method of social responses to
reconnect
the public with
collaborative
sustainable goals rather than individual interests, towards a social progression to save our planet.

Bottari:
A tactical and reflexive system that stimulates a
symbiotic relationship amongst the most deprived
social class enables [ensures] economic, political, and environmental prosperity for the whole of society.
Bubjaku:
Political power is the 'car' for change and it must be driven by a dedicated group of people who will strive toward [resolving] inequality problems, which is the common issue of many failed systems.
Charves
: Proven by the success of Mayor Sergio Fajardo’s (Medellín) "Social Urbanism," strategy of transformation synthesizing the social change potential of both architecture and policy, strengthens impact and delivers greater success both as built public space and political action.

Transforms synthesize ngthens
Delivers


Gautier
: The disbursement of funds towards city revitalization within multiple areas of a community is key to a humanistic approach that will sit well with the people and ensure its social and economic success.
Ariely's Predictably Irrational
Maloney
: Given a complex set of problems, architecture designed through inclusive collective decision making enables a system to operate more reflexively and yield the greatest result for the greatest number of people.
Epstein:
Colombian and Dutch approaches to growth and development through engines of collective engagement demonstrate how infrastructure and other interventions transform the operating systems used to address contemporary issues, and
catalyze
solutions we need to deploy on a global scale.
Behavioral Economics: Nudge
Behavioral Economics: Freakonomics
Behavioral Economics: Predictably Irrational
Fuller Chalkenge Webinar: https://attendee.gotowebinar.com/recording/viewRecording/2935160964564726787/8923482820121631245/cowherd@alum.mit.edu
Maloney:
A climate change game, tailored to a specific audience, can spark short term behavioral adaptations that lead to a reflexive systemic shift of humanity’s physical impact on the planet.


Roberts: As we rely so heavily on social norms, and connected recursive feedback, we now need to synchronize this relationship with a carefully engineered system to activate positive subconscious climate change.

Samman:
Competition and social pressure have the greatest impact on human behavior and can drive the public in making better collective decisions.
How?
Social media, surveys. Using social media's amplifications of social forces.


Bottari:
The restructuring of behavioral norms that seek to promote climate friendly behavior rely on the hybridization of informational and structural strategies tailored to specific social groups.


Epstein:
Given the egg theory/IKEA effect system of motivation, instant gratification can provide incentives within a planetary framework to create positive impacts.



Bubjaku:
Energy program representatives must consider insights from psychological research to construct specific programs, which will incite communities to make conscious positive moves toward climate action.

A specifically targeted system of information distribution, that is also based upon real-time data and social comparisons is the most successful approach to generating a long term behavioral change for climate change action.
A specifically targeted system of information distribution, that is also based upon real-time data and social comparisons is the most successful approach to generating a long term behavioral change for climate change action.
Smoking: Targeted Data + Social Forces/culture + Money + Legal
Charves:
Humans are driven by a complex balance of psychological variables. Our defining quality and our greatest strenght is the ability to make decisions. In order to affect collective change, we must tap into the higher level psychological factors of human agency.
Gautier: How? Conscious goals? Money?

Questions:
1. The stock marketIs liquid: You can turn your stock into cash right now today. What about pico earths?
2. What is the business model for social media? How do social media superstars turn their popularity (social capital) into cash?
3.

Bourdieu
Too big to fail, too big improve.
Generation G Education Gamification
India's Cashless Economy:
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/what-us-can-learn-from-indias-move-toward-cashless-society-wadhwa
Jane McGonigal: Super-Hero Training for Changing the World
1. Heroic: Urgent Optimism
2. Trust: Tight Social Networks
3. Flow: Blissful Productivity
4. Epic Meaning
Herodotus' Lydia Game
Gaming Global Change:
Institute for the Future
http://www.iftf.org/home/

Foresight Game:
http://www.iftf.org/foresightengine/

Evoke: World Bank Institute's Problem Solving Game
http://www.urgentevoke.com/page/how-to-play

Peacemaker spawned Games For Change. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/22/arts/video-games/games-for-change-uses-video-games-for-social-projects.html
Here are some examples to inspire your first stabs:
http://www.gamesforchange.org/play/
Here is a top rated game:
http://www.gamesforchange.org/play/climate-challenge/
or try:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/sn/hottopics/climatechange/climate_challenge/index_1.shtml
Games for Change Competition 15 March Deadline, $10,000
http://festival.gamesforchange.org/
Game Guidelines and Assumptions:

Earth Standard:
The money supply is limited by the current estimation/inventory of planetary carrying capacity quantified in Rockström's 9 "planetary boundaries."
Smart Exchanges:
"Phones" track all choices resulting in transfers of money, and "Earth Share" assets.
Collectives:
Every individual owns her individual money and shares, as well as a portion of money and shares owned by any collective she is a member of.
Earth Shares:
The unit of assets held individually or as part of a collective. Earth is the largest collective. Local collectives can be Partner, Family, Class, Department, School, House-Swite-Room mates, etc.
Turns:
Game play proceeds in rounds that can correspond to any time increment from a decade, down to seconds, or to real time (as in first person shooter games).
Game Board:
The space within which play proceeds can be a small board map up to the 3 dimensional architectural space of a room, up to Virtual Reality interface of a stationary position, up to the scale of the city (Matt Murcko's Thesis), up to the entire surface of the planet (Pokemon Go).
Matt Murcko's Wentworth Architecture Thesis
Urban engagement games
Universal Basic Income
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/23/magazine/universal-income-global-inequality.html
Samman
: social pressure and competition in a cooperative effective system
are capable of psychologically satisfying the human beings desire to produce multitasks to feel achievement and tackle challenges to feel power.

Charves:
Games and the application of principles to a gamified reality has provided a platform for research that has looked to initiate a new mechanism for social and environmental change, however, the distinction needs to be made, whereas games look to solve and develop issues in a vacuum and a gamified reality involves external factors that may weaken its argument.
Bottari:
The combination of instantaneous individual growth and social integration relies on human’s behavioral inclinations to work towards a collaborative goal, creating a “game” structure that can be aimed at real world solutions.
Gautier: (Insight) A collective risk-free environment is key for the for the proper transition of a need to thought, and finally to action.
Epstein: Taking what we have learned from the virtual world, including lessons of urgent optimism and blissful productivity, we must apply these social attributes as felt rewards to the physical choice we make in our enviornment to provide encouragement for contributing to planetary success.
Maloney:
A system which unites world space activities with game space rewards will enable gamers iteratively engage challenges for which they would otherwise feel unqualified or apathetic towards.

Bubjaku:
Elements used in games must be transferred from the virtual world to the real one in order for human collaboration to happen urgently and effectively toward bettering of our planet.
Roberts:
The gamified revolution provides a platform for all ‘gamers’ to connect and strive towards tangible and physical goals (which can act as planetary change) without fear of risk or failure.

System Characteristics
Codify the triangular recycle symbol so that any time it apears in a photo, it is recognized and points are rewarded
-can it be a micro RFID geo location tag, least action required the better, summary reports and so on
Realtime
Realtime + Future Scenarios Testing:
Recruiting Through Social Networking

Doing (game) bad results in doing (world) good

The Earth is a system and it can be modeled as a game. The World Game: start at 12:43.
This is only indirectly related to sociocracy, but I thought it might be interesting anyway.


The following is an example of collective decision-making in a former Soviet country after the fall of the Soviet Union:


"... I [Leonard Joy] was charged to support a team created to manage a process for the redesign of the public sector. ... I chose to act as would a clerk in a Quaker meeting. The team included former government officials and a member of the secret police. ... they could not contain themselves from argument, ... interrupting for their voice to be heard.
They acknowledged that this was not productive and accepted my clerking authority, which now required them to open their meetings with silent worship. Of course, I did not call it that. I asked them to center themselves in their role in search for the greater good. ...
I also asked them to speak only when acknowledged by the clerk—which, of course, I called “the chair.” I further asked them not to present arguments against one another but to each contribute what they understood that was relevant to the decision. I emphasized that we should use the ego to serve the task and not the task to serve the ego.
I further explained the aim of coming to unity and the value of that in securing ownership of the outcome. In my role as chairman I gave periodic reports of what seemed to be agreed, what seemed to need further resolution, and what I sensed that this would take, inviting contributions on these matters.
We made small posters and stuck them on the wall—prompts to remind us of what was now required of us. ... Indeed, the value of the new practice was readily seen and it became adopted with pride. The team members set out to spread this culture in the meetings they were calling in the different branches of the administration ..."


Source: Gray Cox et al., A Quaker Approach to Research: Collaborative Practice and Communal Discernment, pp.40--41.


/Jan, Sweden

Earth Bank: The Economics of Ecosystem and Biodiversity (TEEB)
Game Theory 1: The Prisoners' Dilemma
Game Theory 2: Tragedy of the Commons
Limits of Classical Economic assumptions
Game Theory 3: Tit-For-Tat Reflexivity
Game Theory 4: Common Pool Resources (CPR)
Game Theory 5: Catch Shares Privatization of the Commons
The Final Exam of Design Science: Are we ready for the Planetary Design Revolution?
Elinor Ostrom's 8 Design Principles
Elinor Ostrom's 2009 Nobel Prize Lecture:
https://www.nobelprize.org/mediaplayer/index.php?id=1223
Elinor Ostrom's 2009 Nobel Prize Lecture Slides
Elinor Ostrom's 2009 Nobel Prize Paper


Earth System:
Earth Standard: Instead of the US Dollar or gold, Local exchange currency values are set against the sum total of accessible use values on Earth.
"EarthLeadger" Blockchain: A realtime collective accounting of values managed as a BlockChain "HyperLedger" including geo-locations that can contribute to a Google Earth-based data visualization.
Pokemon Go: Local assets and the decision points in their use/management are represented via mobile phone interfaces.
Pico-Earths: Around 2060, global human population is expected to level off at around 10 billion people. If every person holds 100 shares of the Earth's carrying capacity (a convenient number), their would be 100 shares/person x 10e10 (10 to the 10th power) persons = 10e12 shares. One share is equal to 1/10e12 of the Earth or 10e-12 also known as a "pico-Earth."
Earth Corp.: The Earth's carrying capacity varies over time as a product of changing inputs and outputs, losses from consumption-waste-entropy, technical means of accessing assets, and social-technical means of realizing use value. Evaluating the sum total of the Earth's carrying capacity is the subject of constant audit and annual reporting, as a corporate entity, in the original and more sweeping sense of the term "corporation."
Pico-Earths are held:
By right: a combination of air, water, basic exchange income, and Pico-Earth shares
By inheritance: place (land monetized by use value, not exchange value), and Pico-Earth shares
By earned income: compensation for work
By unearned income: interest and dividends on loans and investments
Pico-Earth dumping rights: air- and water born-pollutants, and solid waste land-fill up to the limit of the Earth capacity to process without impact
http://www.wnyc.org/story/how-environment-got-political/
RadioLab digs deep into Tit-For-Tat surprise success of the Prisoner's Dilemma: http://www.radiolab.org/story/whats-left-when-youre-right/
Kinda Tit-For-Tat mind blowing ending for a game we thought we knew. What if we could find out what they were thinking?
Goldenballs replays the prisoner's dilemma over the course of 300 episodes. No surprises.
9 Project: Chartwell Common Pool Resource
1. Enrollment: There are ranges of avaiable shares for students to acquire based on their grade year. 10,000 available for 1st years, and 20,000; 30,000; 40,000 for each following grade year. An even number of shares are distributed throughout each class at the start of each school year. In the example above, this first year student is recieving 10 shares.

2. Players can loose and earn shares based on their activities within the Chartwell's boundary. The game tracks your world space activities and displays them as a history thread on the main page of the game.

3. The reward scale is defined by the users by an up and down voting system. There are also weekly challenges that individuals can complete to earn shares.

4. At the end of the academic year, players can convert their Chartwells shares to either Pico Earths, or keep them as Chartwells shares. Upon enrollment in the next academic year, players recieve a proportional number of Chartwells shares based on how many they had at the end of the previous class year and how many shares are now available to their new class year. Therefore each academic year players will recieve an enrollment bonus based on good behavior.

5. Once a player graduates from Wentworth they can convert all of the chartwells shares to Pico Earths. If they've played the game well, they will turn their original 10 shares into 40 or more, paying off in additional Pico Earths.
Using indefinite extent, we record analyze and inspect data on the greenGO platform, comparing our performance to those in our immediate network
Places and communities co-produce each other.
Our digital interactions can augment our physical-spatial-social interactions.
Pre-1990 we had the physical world, 1990-2010 we added the digital world as a separate overlay, post-2010 we began to develop the physical-virtual interactive experience of the world.
Participants are alloted a total number of shares per time period (month), Groups are connected together in order to form a collaborative effort towards reducing their energy footprint, in a "friendly" environment. The game rewards the user for taking action to change their daily habits. The user is notified of other group members progress in order to ensure the success of the group. Rather than individual success the ability for the group as a whole is what determines their success. On a larger scale groups are competiting against friend groups for incentives each month.
Gautier: This game is meant to act as a combination of the Health App and Pokemon Go. With the use of augmented reality and image recognition sofware, the players can get real time data that will better inform their daily routine.
Example: Point your camera at your car, or point it at the train or other mode of transportation. The image recognition software will trigger the data that will show the impact of your desicion on the screen.
The app will include ways in which each person is able to transform their desicion making process:
Messaging: between friends or experts.
Settings: helps you set alerts.
Collaboration: test out ideas with your friends before acting upon them.
Data: compare your accomplishments with that of your peers.
Play: with augmented reality and image recognition, choose your path, acquire or get pEs deducted.
pE: like a bank account. pE are a new type of stock (a share of the planet) based on the carrying capacity of the planet. Everyone is born with a certain number of pE. Like stock, you are able to cash in after a certain amount of time,or you may choose to accumulate.
Incentivizing increasing the carrying capacity of the Earth: Shares, money, Dividends, or value of shares?
Is there a physical-spatial component of this?

Studio Shared Space / Storage / Crit Room
Esraa Abdulhakim / James Charves
Game Logic
Chartwells Shares

Key Insight:
Given Ostrom's eight design prinicpals for common pool resources, a virtual game which monitors world-space activities within a specific boundary (College Campuses) can reep rewards for both the players and the company (in this case, Chartwell's) as it tracks the players' impacts on the carrying capacity of the planet.

Insight:
Given the human nature of motivation and competition merged with Eleanor Ostrom's notes on common pool recourses a mobile cloud-based technology app was designed to motivate upkeep and maintenance of the Wentworth Graduate Studio based on a series of individual checkpoints for positive and negative actions while pitting the individual against friends in a game based rewards system.

Argument:
This game is designed around the distinctive competitive nature of humans, as eco-related actions are performed throughout the week (and reset on Sunday night at 12:00 am) you either lose points based on negative actions or gain points on positive actions. Those imaginary "points" are then turned into picoEarths at the end of the semester and are linked to your bank account. This game is based on a direct connection to others, meaning you can be linked to different groups of friends and watch as the levels rise. This app is based on the cloud technology, linking with your computer, bank account, social media, and printing quota and it also does not have to be live to be in full use. Having an app that you need to make effort to open still provides an opportunity to produce a reactionary response.
Your pE:
In the age of the Anthropocene, engineering competition for direct planetary benefit

Image quality issues
Social media linkages are actually productive in line with the mission of the app.
The incentive is to track personal pE wealth

Your pE: In the age of the Anthropocene, human kind is wired towards competitive behavior. Therefore, engineering a game that will directly benefit plantary boundries, driven by social pressure and monetary exchange, will enhance human behavior in the direction of human survival.
ChartWells:
Is there too much on a single screen?

Earth co.


The operation feels good
The design is clean and friendly
How can the player define methods?
A more direct translation between behaviors and points so that we can earn any number between 1 and 6, etc.


Challenge Accepted Grad Studio Game:
loose graphics are nice but hard to follow
Add Storage units and desk sensors plus the app and its management (social challenge by clubs)
milliStorage: Space>Points>Space
Common Pool Studio, Sections, Individuals each with points, milliStorage units, Star Rating.
Start with all desks pushed together on one end.
First Play: Every individual and section competes to make the most efficient arrangement.

10 Cambridge
30 Cohousing
5 CRLS
5 MIT
5 Boston
20 Wentworth
5 Massachusetts
5 United States
5 North America
Indonesia
Solo
Bandung
Jakarta
Ubud, Bali
Yogya
Medellín
20 Earth
Full transcript