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Transcript of Final
The Tudor Dynasty began when the War of the Roses ended in 1485.
This war lasted for 30 long years while English nobles fought over the throne.
Henry II beat Richard III in the Battle of Bosworth and became king of England,
Wales, and parts of Ireland. The two sides of the war were the House of York,
Yorkists(white rose) and the House of Lanchester, Lancastrians (red rose)each
represent a side of the rose. When Henry II took the throne these two roses became one.
The Tudor rose
English Civil War
Salem Witch Trials
The Gunpowder Plot
Elizabeth I became Queen at the age of 25. Her reign was known as the Golden age because of the peace and prosperity she brought upon her country. Although she never married Queen Elizabeth I was one of the greatest monarchs and rulers of England. She loved music, dance, and all kinds of sports especially horseback riding. She also had an act for adventure, which is probably why she hired, pirate, Sir Francis Drake. Drake was responsible for destroying England's enemy ships and bringing back anything he found on his journey's to the New World. The Catholics however, disliked Queen Elizabeth for she was a protestant, they believed Mary Queen of Scots was the rightful Queen of England. Mary was executed by Elizabeth in 1587 after the Babington plot, even though Elizabeth disliked the thought of executing her cousin, it was unavoidable. Elizabeth was a very determined, capable women but she still listened to the advice from the people of her country. When King Phillip of Spain sent his Armada against England, the Armada was defeated by Elizabeth and her army. She proved that any woman could rule just as well as any man, even in war. The last Tudor Queen Elizabeth I died in 1603 after her triumphant reign which bought her country into a new age. England which was one of the poorest was now one of the richest, most powerful countries in the world.
Henry Tudor was not expecting to become King, but when
his father Henry VII died at age 28, he became the new
heir to the throne. With the new fortune from his father’s
triumph in the War of the Rose’s Henry VIII took the throne
at just 18 years of age. He was the single person in charge of
all of England. This big responsibility never was taken care of
in the right way because Henry would rather be out playing
sports and enjoying the luxuries of being king than ruling the
country, so he had his adviser’s rule for him.
Henry VIII is best known for his six wives; Catherine of Argon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Katherine Howard, and Katherine Parr. Henry never had a very deep interest in any of these women but just used them to achieve an heir to the throne. Catherine of Parr gave Henry his first daughter, Mary, not a male heir, and in his disappointment and disgust Henry divorced Catherine of Aragon and married Anne Boleyn. 3 years after this wedding and the birth of Henry's second daughter, Elizabeth, Anne was beheaded for adultery, incest and treason against the king. The only true love of Henry Tudor was his third wife Jane Seymour. Sadly she died giving birth to Henry’s only male heir, Edward I. With his love dead Henry moved on to Anne of Cleves who he annulled six months after their marriage for being ugly or as Henry called her ‘A Flanders’s Mare’. Katherine Howard was the King’s next wife but was soon executed after being caught in the arms of another man. The last of Henry’s wives was Katherine Parr who Henry married so that his son Edward would have someone to look after him when he died. Henry Tudor died in January of 1547 from old age.
The Six Wives!!!
English Civil War was series of small battles between
the Roundheads and Calvaliers. The people during this
time wanted freedom of the Press and Freedom of
Religion. Three of the main battles were; the Battle of
Edgehill, Martson Moor, and Naseby. With the New
Model Army controlled by Oliver Cromwell also having
a big impact in the outcome of the war. In the end
Charle I is executed for treason, his son Charles II is sent
away, and the english monarchy is replaced with a
Oliver Cromwell was a military commander, born in 1599 to a wealthy family. He came into power in the 1640's, during the English Civil War, when he was put in comand of the New Model Army. Cromwell had a very important role in the trial and execution of Charles I, and the abolishment of the stuart monarchy. He was a very courageous, and commited officer and had great disipline during battles. In 1649 after the execution of Charle I he became 'Lord Protector" and commander in cheif of all the parlimentary forces. After 5 years with this role he Cromwell dieson September 3 1658. He was a very religious person and was thought as 'being chosen by God'.
Charles I was the King of England from 1600-1649. He was married to Hernriette Maria and was a very shy and nervous young man, who had no intention of becoming king. Buckingham, Charles I’s father’s favorite adviser was basically running the country for him. When Charles I took the English throne the country was going through various religious and political arguments. Charles was always in conflict with parliament from the start of his reign about various tax and religion problems.In 1629 he decided to rules without parliament and does so for 11 years. However Parliament had control over all the funds that Charles need for his war. This causes a war to break out between Charles (Cavaliers) and Parliament (Roundheads). Throughout the war there many abttles and eventually Charles I thought he could trust the Scots who had sided The 30th of January is forever known as the day of Charles I executionand the end of the English Civil War. He was the first king ever to be publicly executed by his people.
Causes and Effects
The 13 colonies were the first permanent settlements of the United States. The colonists all had different reasons for leaving England and coming to the New World; some wanted peace, others felt England was unstable, many hoped they would find a life of fortune, but the main reason for moving was to find religious freedom. Almost every colony had a different faith, which they taught their children. The education was mostly teaching of the bible because that was the only book people had, but as years passed student were being taught different subjects. In 1636 the first university was founded, Harvard. Every colony elected a king to pass laws and collect taxes, but the British also had their own laws and taxes for the colonies, and not everyone had the same rights. There were also many different crops that grew in the American Colonies and didn’t grow in Europe and which worth a lot of money; tobacco, corn, oats, rice, and wheat. The first few winters the colonists had were devastating and many people died, but the Indians who lived there before taught them how to grow crops, and survive the harsh winters. Overall the American colonists had a better more productive life then those who lived in Europe.
Rhode Island, Connecticut, Massachusests, and New Hamshire
Puritan faith was the main religion
The churchs were used for town meetings.
Few farmers because of the harsh winters, small areas, and rocks in the soil.
Great Forestry, used to make lumber
Were the leaders in ocean shipping,because of all their ships
The Northern Colonies
Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey
Grew many grains, wheat, oats, barley, and rye.
Known as the ‘Bread Basket’
Philadelphia was a shipbuilding center
New York was a Trading Center
Wanted Freedom of Religion
Many Farmers because of the warm climate
Anglicain was the main religion, with the taxes being paid to the church
Many plantations and slaves
Grew tobacco, rice, and indigo
Slave trade was very important
The American Revolution is a significant event in history. It was when the 13 colonies split away from British Empire and became their own country. Two of the main causes of this revolution were the ideas of enlightenment, and various taxes and laws from Britain. In 1765 the British initiated the Stamp Act to try to get out of debt from the French Indian war. The Colonists were tired of taxation without representation and being tied to the British Empire, they wanted their independence. The British sent troops over to the colonies to try to gain control again but it only ended in the Boston Massacre. The American Revolution official began in 1775 with the battle of Lexington and Concord, which historians call ‘the shot heard round the world’. In 1776 the colonists rejected the parliament of Great Britain, and wrote the Declaration of Independence. The French also came into the war on the colonists’ side, and with their help the American Revolution ended in 1783 in Yorktown Virginia, with victory of the colonists. The 13 colonies was now the United States of America.
Declaration of Independence
Battle of Lexington and Concord
Treaty of Paris
Ideas of Enlightenment
Post American Revolution was a war between the northern and southern states. It was caused when anti-slavery president Abraham Lincoln was elected president. The people in the South were worried about all the changes with the government, and believed that soon their slave trade (which was very important in running their farms) would be prohibited. The southern states broke away from the north and formed the confederate states. After the first shots of the war were fired there was no turning back. It took four years for the costliest war of the United States to come to an end, with 600,000 dead, and many towns destroyed.The confederates were beat by the Union and now equality was given to all blacks (but they weren’t treated equal until 100’s of years later).
During the 17th and 18th centuries England was going through many crisis's poor harvests, drought, cattle disease and high bread prices.All this was causing upset citizens rioting, looting, and going on killing sprees. The French revolution didn't help this at all, in fact it was the cause of the many deaths. Louis XVI and his extravigant spending was the start of all the taxation and poverty that lead uo to the revolution. When he called together the Estates General to get approval on his new taxes, Loius XVI didn't think at all about what it was doing to his people... before it was too late. In 1788 Maximillian Robespirre came out of the shadows and started having a big impact on the revolution. This influencial speaker wanted to create a place of egualality and rights for the people of France, but that changed as the revolution progressed. Little did he know that he would be the killed along with the French Revolution, in 1794
The National Razor
nic Era was the period in histo
ry when military commander,
Napolean Bonaparte takes con
trol over France and variou
s parts of Europe. It began in
1804 when he overthrew the
directory and crowned himself
Emperor. For the people of Fran
ce the Napoleonic era was a p
eacful sanctuary after the French
Revolution. Living conditions
were much better along with th
e new arts and theatre that N
apolean loved so much. Napo
lean did accomplish many gre
at achievments including th
e Napoleonic Code but he still
had his erratic impulses. He w
as exciled twice during his rei
gn, and ended up dieing at durin
g his last excile at St. Helena.
The Napoleonic era was a
time of great triuph and failure
for it leader,
Napoleon Bonaparte was born on august 15, 1769. He was a French military leader who gained lots of power during the French Revolution. When Napoleon came to power in France after overthrowing the directory, he crowned himself emperor and began trying to expand his empire. Although, not all of his battles were victories. In 1812 Napolean was exciled to the island of Elba, but he escaped and returned to France two yers later, only to be exciled once again after the Battle of Waterloo to the island of St. Helena. This time though, Napoleon never escaped the island, he died there at age 51.
Loius XVI was 20 years old when he came to the throne. His finance minister and adviser , Necker, basically ran the country for him. Loius had the habit of following otheer advice which was great at some points in his rule but in the end cost him his life. He married Marie Antonette, and brought England to the brink of Bankruptcy. In 1789 Loius summoned the Estates general to get the aproval on the new taxes. At this time the third estate relized they were being mistreated and broke off from the rest of the court and formed the National Assembly. They all signed the Tennis Court Oath and agreed to keep meeting until a constitution was drawn up. Even as all of this was happening Loius XVI didn't realize that he was in danger until 'the womens march on Versailles', which caused Loius and Marie Antoinette to be transfered to Paris to witness all the havoc that was really going on. Louis XVI was executed on January 21, 1793 for treaseon against his country after he trued to escape to Austria with Marie Antoinette (who was also executed during the revolution). The people of France thought that Louis' death would be the end to the bloodshed but really it wasonly the beginning.
Robespierre was born, May 6, 1758. He was one of the most influencial speakers of the 1700's. Robespirre was givin the nickname 'The Incoruptible' because because of his intense commitment to turn france into a Republic of Virtue. In 1789 he decided to go to Paris and defend the third Estates at the Estates General. His main goal during the beginning of the French Revolution was to denfend peoples rights. Robespirre was an opposer of the death penalty and of slavery but as the revolution progressed all that changed. Robespierre became the leader of the Jacobins, the Comittee of Public Saftey, and president of the Converntion. 'The Terror had a major impact on Robespirre, for during this time he became a supporter of the death penalty, and executed Danton and all of his followers, along with 40,000 people of France. As the revolution progressed however, Robespirres popularity began to fade. On July, 28 1794 he was sentenced to death. Robespierre was sent to the guilotine to die just like the thousands before him, only he got the privilage of facing the blade as it ended his life.
July 14 1789 became a national holiday in the 1700's . This was the day the Bastille was stormed. Citizen of England attack the famous prison in an attempt to raid the gunpowder and weapons. This event is considered to be the start of the French Revolution
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizeen was a document theat stated that every person was equal, and should have freedom of speech,and freedom of the press.
Storming of the Bastille
Declarations of the Rights of Man
Most Devastating Defeat
The Napoleanic Code also known as the Civil code was published in 1804 and is known as Napolean Bonaparte's greatest accomplishment. It is still used to help form the french civil law to this day, and was used as a model for the codes of law in twenty nations back in the 1800's. It stated; everyone had freedom of religion, equalality was before law, property rights were absolute, and feudalism was to be forever abolished. The Napoleanic Code also made the husband the ruler of the household. A lot of these laws are still used to this day around the world, but some were abolished just years after they were made. Napolean Bonaparte was a very stange man but he also knew what he wanted and would do whatever it took to get it done.
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, between Emperor Napolean Bonaparte and his French army and all of British, Austria, and Prussia's armies After not even a day the most stratigic military officer Napolean, knew he was defeated. The Prussian army captured Napolean and exiled him once more. St. Helena's island was Napolean's destination this time, he never did escaped but died at 51. His defeat at the Battle of Waterloo not only marked his hundred day back from his first excile, but the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in France.
In 1692 there were many trials being
initiated because the hysteria spreading
through Massachusetts, the cause of the
havoc; a group of girls from the village of
Salem. These girls claimed to be possessed
by the devil and were accusing local women
witchcraft, and sending them to the gallows.
The reason it caused so much excitment was
the people of the time were very religious and
they beileved that children were unable to tell
The first three to be accused of being witches were; Tituba, a Caribbean slave, Homless beggar Sarah Good and elderly Sarah Osborn. These woman were givin a trial and dubbed innocent, however Tibuta confessed and named others involved with devil, hoping to save herself. All through the trials, the girls were schreiching and having unintentitional spasms. The three ladies were sentenced to hanging for witchcraft by Samuel Sewall, because he thought their deaths would bring the end of the havoc.The girls in Salem caused over 150 people to die, and the Salem Witch Trials didn't end until 1693.
Stamp Act of 1765 was a direct tax on the colonies, which made a legal document require a British stamp of approvel, which cost money. All this was just to help pay for the british loss to the french in the 'french and indian war' and keep them out of debt..
French and Indian War was fought between the Britian and France in 1754. The British lost causing them to be put into great debt. This caused lots of taxation without representation on the 13 colonies, which caused an outbreak of war.
Declaration of Independence was a document that stated the 13 colonie independent states. This document caused the breakout of the American Revolution. In 1776 the document was signed, legally making the 13 colonies the United States of America.
Abraham Licololn was president of the United Stated of America in 1861. He had his own unique way of dealing with things. Lincoln got the nickame 'honest Abe ' for how humble and honest he was in his achievments. He was peresident during the civil war which was won by the union. Lincoln abolished slavery in the states and gave equality to the blacks. On April, 15, 1865 Abraham Lincoln was assasinated in JOhn Wilkes Booth by a native from the south who was upset about the outcome of the Civil War. Lincoln was the first president to ever have been assainated and will be forever known as one of the most famous presidents of the united states.
The Georgian and Victorian were very similar time periods, in which Britain enjoyed peace, prosperity,and confiedence of their country. Although,the Georgian period of time was more rational where the Victorian era was romantic. It was the time when the Industrial Revolution was taking place. New buildings, bridges, factories, and people started coming out from the shadows and sharing their ideas. Things like 'The Great Exhibition' the first world fair were becoming popular in Europe. Authors like Charles Dickens, were publishing books which are still read today. Science and arts came before religion in the Georgian/ Victorian Era.
Although England eperienced perks of the Industrial Revolution there was still many thing that it caused that were not that pleasant. England was becoming more and more polluted; air full of smoke and water and streets full of sewage. Overpopulation became a big problem in Europe and especially London. There could be one hundered people living in one house! More people were being fired and replaced by machines, and in 1811, the 'Luddities' started showing their disaprovment by vandalizing the machines that replaced them. Children as young as 5 started working to help with the family budget, they were givin very dangerous jobs such as coal mining and chimney sweeping, and were paid very poorly. Prostitutes were also a very popular form of making money. Finally the Factory Act was established in 1948, stating the how many hours one child could work a day, but if anything it just made situations worse. Yes, not as many children were dying from the dangerous work but many famillies were staring from the lack of money for food and shelter. The Georgian/Victorian Ere had its perks and downfalls.
Guy Fawkes was born on April 13 1570. When he was younger he was brought up as a protestant but later on his stepfather taught him to follow the catholic religion. Fawkes fought in the Spanish Netherlands for 10 years, in charge of all the explosives. In 1605 he participated in the Gunpowder Plot, to try and replace the protestant King James I with his catholic daughter Elizabeth I. Guy Fawkes was put in charge of the explosives but before the plan could even be put in action, Fawkes was captured by a tipped of guard. He was tortured on the rack for two days before he even gave up his name. Fawkes died on November 5 1606 after being hanged, drawn, and quartered. Guy fawkes was a very loyal, intelligent man, who would never betray his allies.
The Gunpowder Plot was a failed attempt to assassinate King James I in 1605. It was executed by a goup of english Catholics lead by Robert Catesby. The members of this group were; John Wright, Thomas Wintour, Thomas Percy, Guy Fawkes, Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, Robert Wintour, Christopher Wright, John Grant, Sir Ambrose Rookwood, Sir Everard Digby, Francis Tresham, and Robert Catesby. All of these members had one goal in common to replace King James I with a Catholic monarch. They planned to use gunpowder and blow up the House of Lords. This plan failed before it even began because their was a inside man, working for the king.
Socials Final Project
English Civil War
Salem Witch Trials
American Civil War
The Gunpowder Plot