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Dalal Alhashimi

on 1 February 2015

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Effective Communication
Communication process in professional environment
7 C's of communication
The dynamics of communication
Questioning and listening skills
Controlling a discussion
Influencing Skills
Negotiation Skills
Dealing with difficult people
Communicating under pressure
Tips for effective feedback

Effective Communication

Be empathetic!
Ask Questions!

The Communication Process in professional environment
Every time we open our mouths to speak, we are taking a leap of faith – faith that what we say will be understood by our listeners, more or less as we mean it.
Knowledge of others
Willingness to “really” listen
Willingness to make changes
7 C's of communication

What Is Communication?
Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one place to another

People shouldn't have to "read between the lines"
Make sure that it's easy for your reader to understand your meaning.
Stick to the point and keep it brief.
The audience doesn't want to read six sentences when you could communicate your message in three.
There are details (but not too many!)
Your message is solid.
Spell checking.
When your communication is correct, it fits your audience.
All points are connected and relevant to the main topic
The tone and flow of the text is consistent.
Have you included all relevant information – contact names, dates, times, locations, and so on?
Courteous communication is friendly, open, and honest.
There are no hidden insults or passive-aggressive tones.
The dynamics of communication
To understand better the complexities of communication, let us look at the various levels on which communication may take place. There are at least four such levels:
1. Content
The factual material, the basic words themselves, or what one is talking about.

2. Feelings
Experiencing some feelings, such as: enthusiasm, pleasure, disgust, or whatever - as you are transmitting.

The feelings are a vital and very important.
3. Feelings about feelings
Feelings about feelings are an important aspect of communication and can create many problems in communication.
4. Transmission
Clear transmission facilitates clear reception.

Questioning Techniques
Asking the right question is at the heart of effective communications and information exchange
By using the right questions in a particular situation, you can improve a whole range of communications skills
For example, you can gather better information and learn more; you can build stronger relationships, manage people more effectively and help others to learn too.
Open Questions
Open questions elicit longer answers. They usually begin with what, why, how.
Here are some examples:
•What happened at the meeting?
•Why did he react that way?
•How was the party?
•Tell me what happened next.
•Describe the circumstances in more detail.

Open questions are good for:
•Developing an open conversation
•Finding out more detail
•Finding out the other person's opinion or issues
Closed Questions
A closed question usually receives a single word or very short, factual answer.
A misplaced closed question, on the other hand, can kill the conversation and lead to awkward silences, so are best avoided when a conversation is in full flow.
Closed questions are good for:

•Testing your understanding, or the other person's: "So, if I get this qualification, I will get a raise?"
•Concluding a discussion or making a decision: "Now we know the facts, are we all agreed this is the right course of action?"
•Frame setting: "Are you happy with the service from your bank?"

Probing Questions
For finding out more detail.
To get an additional information for clarification.
Probing questions are good for:
•Gaining clarification to ensure you have the whole story and that you understand it thoroughly.
•Drawing information out of people who are trying to avoid telling you something.

Leading Questions
Leading questions try to lead the respondent to your way of thinking. They can do this in several ways:
•With an assumption
•By adding a personal appeal to agree at the end
•Phrasing the question
Leading questions are good for:
•Getting the answer you want but leaving the other person feeling that they have had a choice.

Using Questioning Techniques
By consciously applying the appropriate kind of questioning, you can gain the information, response or outcome that you want even more effectively.
Questions are a powerful way of:
Relationship building
Avoiding misunderstandings
De-fusing a heated situation
Persuading people
Tips for Effective Listening


Be mentally prepared to listen
Evaluate the speech not the speaker
Be unbiased to the speaker by depersonalizing your feelings
Fight distractions by closing off sound sources
Be open minded
Ask questions to clarify and not to overshadow intelligence
Paraphrase from time to time
Send appropriate non-verbal signals time to time


Not to pay undue emphasis on vocabulary as you can use the context to understand the meaning
Not to pay too much attention to the accessories and clothing of the speaker
Not to prepare your responses while the speaker is speaking
Avoid preconceptions and prejudices
Not to get distracted by outside influences
Not to interrupt too often
Not to show boredom

You do not listen with just your ears. You listen with your eyes and with your sense of touch. You listen with your mind, your heart, your imagination. (Egan Gerard)

A good conversationalist is popular, a good listener even more so. Talk only if you have something to say.

Controlling discussions
Tool aim

To control a discussion session by encouraging the quiet ones to speak and the noisy ones to allow others to join in.

Influencing Skills
Social Proof

1 - Reciprocation
One person is required to repay in kind what another person has provided.

“One good turn deserves another”

2 - Consistency
Good personal consistency is highly valued by society.

Consistent behavior provides beneficial approach to daily life.

“Doing what you said you would do”

3 Social Proof
People often decide what to do or believe in a certain situation by looking at what other people are doing and believing.

“it’s the way things are done around here”

4 Liking
People prefer to say ‘YES’ to those they know and like.

“I like you so….why not!”

5 Authority
People have a deep-seated obedience and compliance towards requests from authority

6 Scarcity
According to the scarcity principle, people assign more value to opportunities when they are less available

Negotiation Skills
What is negotiation?
Negotiation takes place when two or more people, with differing views, come together to attempt to reach agreement on an issue. It is persuasive communication or bargaining.
"you don't get what you deserve, you get what you negotiate“

1 preparation
2 objectivity
3 strategy
4 technique
Negotiation Skills
1 preparation
Prepare for the negotiation if you want to succeed
2 objectivity
Assess your strengths, weakness and goals.
3 strategy
Plan a realistic course of action based on sound preparation and objective appraisal of resources
4 technique
Combine a wide set of skills, Draw an experience and self-discipline
Dealing with difficult people
Difficult people are everywhere. Maybe you’re one of them? Or maybe, everyone is difficult during certain moments of their life. Either way, eventually you’ll need to work or compromise with a person that you think is difficult.
Realize that there will always be people in the world that will obstruct you.
Look at your own behavior
Try to become more aware of your own perception of others.
Talk to your peers about it.
Communicating Effectively Under Pressure
Communicating clearly can be tricky but stress can make it a much harder task.
Be self-aware
Stay focused
Plan ahead
Receiving Feedback Effectively
Listen to the feedback given.
Be aware of your non-verbal responses.
Be open.
Understand the message.
Reflect and decide what to do.
Follow up.
Giving Feedback Effectively
• Prioritize your ideas and understand their value.
• Concentrate on the behavior, not the person.
• Balance the content.
• Be specific.
• Be realistic.
• Be timely.
• Offer continuing support
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